Difference between revisions of "Anatoly Fomenko"

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|+Supernovae pre-Renaissance
 
|+Supernovae pre-Renaissance
 
! Supernova
 
! Supernova
 +
! Year
 +
! Dates
 
! Constellation
 
! Constellation
 
! Apparent<br>magnitude
 
! Apparent<br>magnitude
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! Galaxy
 
! Galaxy
 
! Comments
 
! Comments
 +
! Refs
 
|-
 
|-
| SN 185
+
| [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SN_185 SN 185]
 +
| align=center | [[:Category:Pre-Renaissance psyops|185]]
 +
| align=center | [[:Category:04/17 psyops|17 April]]-[[:Category:05/01 psyops|1 May]]
 
| Centaurus
 
| Centaurus
| align="center" | -4 (?) <ref>Modern estimates vary widely; see [[SN 185]] for more detail.</ref>
+
| align="center" | -4 (?)
| 9,100<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Ksenofontov|first=L. T.|last2=Berezhko|first2=E. G.|last3=Völk|first3=H. J.|date=2005-04-01|title=Magnetic field amplification in Tycho and other shell-type supernova remnants|journal=Astronomy & Astrophysics|language=en|volume=433|issue=1|pages=229–240|doi=10.1051/0004-6361:20042015|issn=0004-6361|bibcode=2005A&A...433..229V|arxiv=astro-ph/0409453}}</ref>
+
| 9,100
 
| align="center" | Ia (?)
 
| align="center" | Ia (?)
 
| Milky Way
 
| Milky Way
| Surviving description sketchy; modern estimates of maximum apparent magnitude vary from +4 to &minus;8.  The remnant is probably [[RCW Catalogue|RCW]] 86, some 8200 ly distant,<ref>[http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2006/rcw86/ "New evidence links stellar remains to oldest recorded supernova"] Chandra X-ray Observatory, released 2006-09-18, revised 2009-02-20, retrieved 2010-02-26.</ref> making it comparable to [[SN 1572]].  Some researchers have suggested it was a comet, not a supernova.<ref name=Chin>{{Cite journal
+
| '''Surviving description sketchy'''; modern estimates of maximum apparent magnitude vary from +4 to &minus;8.  The remnant is probably [[RCW Catalogue|RCW]] 86, some 8200 ly distant, making it comparable to [[SN 1572]].  Some researchers have suggested it was a comet, not a supernova.
|vauthors=Chin YN, Huang YL
+
| align=center | <ref name=CommSN185 group="S">Modern estimates vary widely on Supernova 185; see [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SN_185 SN 185] for more detail</ref><ref name=Voelk2005 group="S">[https://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0409453 2005-04-01 - Ksenofontov, L. T. & Berezhko, E. G. & Völk, H. J. 229-240 - Magnetic field amplification in Tycho and other shell-type supernova remnants, Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 433]</ref><ref name=Chandra2006 group="S">[http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2006/rcw86/ "New evidence links stellar remains to oldest recorded supernova"] Chandra X-ray Observatory, released 2006-09-18, revised 2009-02-20, retrieved 2010-02-26.</ref><br><ref name=Chin1994 group="S">1994 - Chin et al. - ''Nature''</ref><ref name=Zhao2006 group="S">[https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1009-9271/6/5/17/meta 2006 - Zhao FY, Strom RG, Jiang SY - The Guest Star of AD185 Must Have Been a Supernova, Chinese J Astron Astrophys. , vol.6, issue 5, pages=635–40]</ref>
|title=Identification of the Guest Star of AD 185 as a comet rather than a supernova
 
|journal=Nature  
 
|volume=371
 
|issue=6496
 
|pages=398–399
 
|url=http://mail.tku.edu.tw/einmann/papers/SN185.ps
 
|url-status=dead
 
|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131105121538/http://mail.tku.edu.tw/einmann/papers/SN185.ps
 
|archivedate=2013-11-05
 
|bibcode=1994Natur.371..398C
 
|year=1994
 
|doi=10.1038/371398a0
 
}}</ref><ref name=Zhao>{{Cite journal|vauthors=Zhao FY, Strom RG, Jiang SY |title=The Guest Star of AD185 Must Have Been a Supernova |journal=Chinese J Astron Astrophys. |date=2006 |volume=6 |issue=5 |pages=635–40 |doi=10.1088/1009-9271/6/5/17 |bibcode = 2006ChJAA...6..635Z }}</ref>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| SN 386
+
| [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SN_386 SN 386]
 +
| align=center | [[:Category:Pre-Renaissance psyops|386]]
 +
| align=center | April/May
 
| Sagittarius
 
| Sagittarius
 
| align="center" | +1.5
 
| align="center" | +1.5
Line 94: Line 88:
 
| align="center" | II
 
| align="center" | II
 
| Milky Way
 
| Milky Way
| The candidate remnant is G11.2-0.3.<ref name="SEDS_SN_386">{{Cite web
+
| China. The candidate remnant is G11.2-0.3
| author=SEDS
+
| align=center | <ref name="SEDS_SN_386" group="S">[http://spider.seds.org/spider/Misc/sn0386.html SEDS - Supernova 386]</ref><ref name=NRAO group="S">[http://images.nrao.edu/666 National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) - The Supernova of 386 AD]</ref>
| title=Supernova 386
 
| url=http://spider.seds.org/spider/Misc/sn0386.html  
 
}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web
 
| author=National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)
 
| title=The Supernova of 386 AD
 
| url=http://images.nrao.edu/666  
 
}}</ref>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| SN 393
+
| [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SN_393 SN 393]
 +
| align=center | [[:Category:Pre-Renaissance psyops|393]]
 +
| align=center | [[:Category:02/27 psyops|27 February]]-[[:Category:03/28 psyops|28 March]] & [[:Category:10/22 psyops|22 October]]-[[:Category:11/19 psyops|19 November]]
 
| Scorpius
 
| Scorpius
 
| align="center" | –0
 
| align="center" | –0
Line 110: Line 99:
 
| align="center" | &nbsp;
 
| align="center" | &nbsp;
 
| Milky Way
 
| Milky Way
| &nbsp;
+
| <small>SN 393 is the modern designation for a probable supernova that was reported by the Chinese in the year 393 CE. An extracted record of this astronomical event was translated into English as follows: <small>''A guest star appeared within the asterism Wěi during the second lunar month of the 18th year of the Tai-Yuan reign period, and disappeared during the ninth lunar month. — Shen Yue, Song Shu''</small>
 +
 
 +
Before 1975, the observation made by the Chinese between February and March 393 CE was considered to be '''likely a bright nova with a secondary maximum'''. At the time, there were '''only seven possible candidate supernova remnants near where SN 393 was observed'''. <big><u>Assuming</u></big> maximum –1 magnitude occurred '''close to 10,000 pc (33,000 ly) away (this is all based on parallax measurements!, see for more [[TYCHOS glossary]])''', this '''immediately ruled out four possible candidates'''. Another discounted remnant was G350.0-1.8, as the expectant expansion rate indicated the supernova occurred around 8,000 years ago. Of the two remaining sources, G348.5+0.1 and G348.7+0.3, were both at the required 10,000 pc. distance and also each had estimated ages of 1,500 years. If true, it seems unlikely such supernovae would be visible to the naked eye over eight months, especially because they occurred close to a particularly dusty part of the galactic plane.
 +
</small>
 +
| align=center | <ref name=SIMBAD group="S">[http://simbad.u-strasbg.fr/simbad/sim-id?Ident=SN%20393 SIMBAD - SN 393 -- SuperNova, Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg]</ref><ref name=aass305_3_207 group="S">[https://books.google.com/books?id=YbB8RBAbomYC&pg=PA97 2005 - Wang, Zhen-Ru - The impact of historical Chinese astronomical records, Astrophysics and Space Science, vol.305, issue 3, pages 207–210]</ref><ref name=obs95_190 group="S">[https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1975Obs....95..190C/abstract 1975 - Clark & Stephenson - The remnants of the supernovae of AD 185 and AD 393, The Observatory, vol.95, pages 190–195]</ref><ref name=CERN group="S">[http://cds.cern.ch/record/603187/files/0301603.pdf 2003 - Green & Stephenson - The Historical Supernovae - 12 pages]</ref><ref name=qjras17_290 group="S">[http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1976QJRAS..17..290C 1976 - Clark, Stephenson & Stephenson - Which historical new stars were supernovae, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol.17, pages 290–302]</ref><ref name=wang_qu_chen1998 group="S">[https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998IAUS..188..262W/abstract 1998 - Wang et al. - The AD 393 Guest Star ; the SNR RX 51713.7-3946, The Hot Universe. Proceedings of IAU Symposium #188, editors Katsuji Koyama, Shunji Kitamoto, Masayuki Itoh, publisher Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, page=262]</ref><ref name=aaa505_1_157 group="S">[https://arxiv.org/abs/0906.1073 2009 - Acero et al. - A joint spectro-imaging analysis of the XMM-Newton and HESS observations of the supernova remnant RX J1713.7-3946, Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol.505, pages 157–167]</ref><ref name=aaa511 group="S">[https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/abs/2010/03/aa13312-09/aa13312-09.html 2010 - Berezhko & Völk - Nonthermal and thermal emission from the supernova remnant RX J1713.7-3946, Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol.511, page A34]</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| SN 1006
+
| <big>'''[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SN_1006 SN 1006]'''</big>
 +
| align=center | '''[[:Category:Pre-Renaissance psyops|1006]]'''
 +
| align=center | '''[[:Category:04/17 psyops|17 April]]-[[:Category:05/01 psyops|1 May]] [=14 days]'''
 
| Lupus
 
| Lupus
| align="center" | –7.5<ref>{{cite journal
+
| align="center" | '''–7.5'''
| last=Winkler | first=P. Frank
 
| title=The SN 1006 Remnant: Optical Proper Motions, Deep Imaging, Distance, and Brightness at Maximum
 
| journal=The Astrophysical Journal
 
| date=2003 | volume=585
 
| issue=1 | pages=324–335
 
| doi=10.1086/345985
 
| last2=Gupta
 
| first2=Gaurav
 
| last3=Long
 
| first3=Knox S. | bibcode=2003ApJ...585..324W|arxiv = astro-ph/0208415 }}</ref>
 
 
| 7,200
 
| 7,200
 
| align="center" | Ia
 
| align="center" | Ia
 
| Milky Way
 
| Milky Way
| Widely observed on Earth; in apparent magnitude, the brightest stellar event in recorded history.<ref name = "NOAO1">{{cite press release | title = Astronomers Peg Brightness of History’s Brightest Star | publisher = National Optical Astronomy Observatory | date = 2003-03-05 | url = http://www.noao.edu/outreach/press/pr03/pr0304.html | accessdate = 2009-01-12 }}</ref>
+
| '''<big>Widely observed on Earth</big>; in apparent magnitude, the <big>brightest stellar event in recorded history</big>'''
 +
| align=center | <ref name = "NOAO1" group="S">[http://www.noao.edu/outreach/press/pr03/pr0304.html 2003 - National Optical Astronomy Observatory - Astronomers Peg Brightness of History’s Brightest Star]</ref><ref name=Winkler2003 group="S">[https://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0208415 2003 - Winkler, P. Frank et al. - The SN 1006 Remnant: Optical Proper Motions, Deep Imaging, Distance, and Brightness at Maximum, The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 585, pages=324–335]</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| SN 1054
+
| <big>'''[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SN_1054 SN 1054]'''</big>
 +
| align=center | '''[[:Category:Pre-Renaissance psyops|1054]]'''
 +
| align=center | '''[[:Category:07/04 psyops|4 July]] [just 1 day??]'''
 
| Taurus
 
| Taurus
| align="center" | –6
+
| align="center" | '''–6'''
 
| 6,500
 
| 6,500
 
| align="center" | II
 
| align="center" | II
 
| Milky Way
 
| Milky Way
| Remnant is the [[Crab Nebula]] with its pulsar (neutron star)
+
| <small>Remnant is the [[Crab Nebula]] with its pulsar (neutron star)</small>
 +
| align=center |
 
|-
 
|-
| SN 1181
+
| '''[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SN_1181 SN 1181]'''
| Cassiopeia
+
| align=center | '''[[:Category:Pre-Renaissance psyops|1181]]-[[:Category:Pre-Renaissance psyops|82]]'''
 +
| align=center | [[:Category:08/04 psyops|4-6 August]]-[[:Category:02/04 psyops|for 185 days]]
 +
| '''Cassiopeia'''
 
| align="center" | 0
 
| align="center" | 0
 
| 8,500
 
| 8,500
 
| align="center" | &nbsp;
 
| align="center" | &nbsp;
 
| Milky Way
 
| Milky Way
| &nbsp;
+
| <small>First observed between August 4 and August 6, 1181, '''Chinese and Japanese astronomers recorded the supernova''' now known as SN 1181 in '''8 separate texts'''. <big>One of only 8 supernovae in the Milky Way observable with the naked eye in recorded history</big>, it appeared in the constellation Cassiopeia and was visible in the night sky for about '''185 days'''.<br>
 +
 
 +
The radio and X-ray pulsar J0205+6449 (also known as 3C 58), which rotates about 15 times per second, is possibly the remnant from this event. If the supernova and pulsar are associated, the star is still rotating about as quickly as it did when it first formed. This is in contrast to the Crab pulsar, known to be the remnant of the SN 1054 supernova in the year 1054, which has lost two-thirds of its rotational energy in essentially the same time span. Recent radio surveys of 3C 58, however, indicate that this supernova remnant may be much older and thus not associated with SN 1181.</small>
 +
| align=center |
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}

Revision as of 16:39, 8 November 2019

Anatoly Fomenko is a Russian mathematician and historical researcher and the proponent of New Chronology, a revised historiography of the world.

Ideas

Crucifixion Darkness

Fomenko alleges that the "darkness" for "3 hours" at the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, according to the mainstream Vatican narrative on 04/03, 33 AD, was a solar eclipse, which makes a little bit more sense than the mainstream (lack of) explanation for such curious event, which may well have been the combination of clouds, sand storms and other meteorological phenomena, extending the maximum period of a total solar eclipse.

But then, from the alleged location of the crucifixion, a solar eclipse must have been visible.

  • Fomenko positions "Jerusalem" in Constantinople/Byzantium/Istanbul, so this must have been a hill nearby.
  • Fomenko states "1170 ± 20 AD". And on page 388 of New Chronology:

"It turns out that the solar eclipse of 1185 A.D. corresponds a lot more to the real dating of the Crucifixion."[1] It is unclear why Fomenko bothers to look for an eclipse around this event because if you take the bible literally the crucificion happened around Passover, which starts on a full moon. So this places the sun and moon on opposite sides of earth. And the period of darkness, which in the bible lasts about 3 hours is much too long for an eclipse. Why should God have to take into account the laws of planetary motion in the first place? This seems like a case of cherry picking by Fomenko.

Eclipses

Listed below are solar eclipses between 1100 and 1250:

Solar eclipses pre-Renaissance
# Year Date Saroc cycle Where Comments Stellarium Refs
0 1098 07/01 112 Central Americas, Western Africa Aztec, Maya, Muisca, Inca, West African archeoastronomy needed [ 1098 AD] [E 1]
2 1116 07/11 112 Hawaii, Pacific Only visible from Hawaii; Hawaiian archeoastronomy needed [ 1116 AD] [E 2]
4 1134 07/23 112 Levant, Arabia, Persia, India, China, SE Asia, Australia Arabian, Persian, Indian, Chinese, aboriginal archeoastronomy needed [ 1134 AD] [E 3]
6 1152 08/02 112 NE South America, S Spain, Morocco, W Africa, Ethiopia, South Africa Moorish, Arabic, African, Ethiopian or Brazilian archeoastronomy needed [ 1152 AD] [E 4]
8 1167 04/21 115 Stretching from Germany all the way to Kamchatka Eastern European, Russian, Greek, Turkish, Persian, Arabian, Chinese, Indian astronomy, "Tartarian" archeoastronomy needed [ 1167 AD] [E 5]
9 1170 08/13 112 Hawaii, Pacific Only visible from Hawaii; Hawaiian archeoastronomy needed
Together in the sky; Sun, Moon, Venus, Regulus and Mercurius; Moon occults Regulus. From Western Pacific beautiful sunrise with these bodies aligned.
[ 1170 AD - Kyoto] [E 6]
10 1185 05/01 115 Zenith above northern Atlantic, visible from all of the "civilized world" (all of Europe, North Africa, Middle East, until Palestine... also Colombia, Venezuela, Amazonian and Cerrado/Caatinga Native American, Maya, Aztec, Muisca, Amazonian archaeoastronomy, European, Muslim, Egyptian, Turkish, Russian astronomy needed [ 1185 AD] [E 7]
11 1188 08/24 112 "Tartaria", India, China, Korea, Japan, SE Asia, Australia "Tartarian", Indian, Chinese, Korean, Japanese, aboriginal archeoastronomy needed [ 1188 AD] [E 8]
13 1203 05/12 115 Eastern Russia across Bering over North America but not Mexico Native American, Canadian, Kamtchatkan/eastern "Tartarian" archeoastronomy needed [ 1203 AD] [E 9]
15 1206 09/04 112 NE South America, Ireland, Iberia, Italy, France, Morocco, W Africa, Ethiopia, South Africa Must have been widely recognized [ 1206 AD] [E 10]
17 1224 09/14 112 Pacific, western Northern, Central and South America Only visible from Hawaii; Hawaiian, Aztec, Maya, Muisca, Inca archeoastronomy needed [ 1224 AD] [E 11]
19 1242 09/26 112 "Tartaria", India, China, Korea, Japan, SE Asia, Australia "Tartarian", Indian, Chinese, Korean, Japanese, aboriginal archeoastronomy needed [ 1242 AD] [E 12]
21 1260 10/06 112 NE South America, Iberia, Morocco, W Africa, Ethiopia, South Africa Moorish, Arabic, African archeoastronomy needed [ 1260 AD] [E 13]

Supernovae

Listed below are all the supernovae before 1500:

Supernovae pre-Renaissance
Supernova Year Dates Constellation Apparent
magnitude
Distance
(ly)
Type Galaxy Comments Refs
SN 185 185 17 April-1 May Centaurus -4 (?) 9,100 Ia (?) Milky Way Surviving description sketchy; modern estimates of maximum apparent magnitude vary from +4 to −8. The remnant is probably RCW 86, some 8200 ly distant, making it comparable to SN 1572. Some researchers have suggested it was a comet, not a supernova. [S 1][S 2][S 3]
[S 4][S 5]
SN 386 386 April/May Sagittarius +1.5 14,700 II Milky Way China. The candidate remnant is G11.2-0.3 [S 6][S 7]
SN 393 393 27 February-28 March & 22 October-19 November Scorpius –0 34,000   Milky Way SN 393 is the modern designation for a probable supernova that was reported by the Chinese in the year 393 CE. An extracted record of this astronomical event was translated into English as follows: A guest star appeared within the asterism Wěi during the second lunar month of the 18th year of the Tai-Yuan reign period, and disappeared during the ninth lunar month. — Shen Yue, Song Shu

Before 1975, the observation made by the Chinese between February and March 393 CE was considered to be likely a bright nova with a secondary maximum. At the time, there were only seven possible candidate supernova remnants near where SN 393 was observed. Assuming maximum –1 magnitude occurred close to 10,000 pc (33,000 ly) away (this is all based on parallax measurements!, see for more TYCHOS glossary), this immediately ruled out four possible candidates. Another discounted remnant was G350.0-1.8, as the expectant expansion rate indicated the supernova occurred around 8,000 years ago. Of the two remaining sources, G348.5+0.1 and G348.7+0.3, were both at the required 10,000 pc. distance and also each had estimated ages of 1,500 years. If true, it seems unlikely such supernovae would be visible to the naked eye over eight months, especially because they occurred close to a particularly dusty part of the galactic plane.

[S 8][S 9][S 10][S 11][S 12][S 13][S 14][S 15]
SN 1006 1006 17 April-1 May [=14 days] Lupus –7.5 7,200 Ia Milky Way Widely observed on Earth; in apparent magnitude, the brightest stellar event in recorded history [S 16][S 17]
SN 1054 1054 4 July [just 1 day??] Taurus –6 6,500 II Milky Way Remnant is the Crab Nebula with its pulsar (neutron star)
SN 1181 1181-82 4-6 August-for 185 days Cassiopeia 0 8,500   Milky Way First observed between August 4 and August 6, 1181, Chinese and Japanese astronomers recorded the supernova now known as SN 1181 in 8 separate texts. One of only 8 supernovae in the Milky Way observable with the naked eye in recorded history, it appeared in the constellation Cassiopeia and was visible in the night sky for about 185 days.

The radio and X-ray pulsar J0205+6449 (also known as 3C 58), which rotates about 15 times per second, is possibly the remnant from this event. If the supernova and pulsar are associated, the star is still rotating about as quickly as it did when it first formed. This is in contrast to the Crab pulsar, known to be the remnant of the SN 1054 supernova in the year 1054, which has lost two-thirds of its rotational energy in essentially the same time span. Recent radio surveys of 3C 58, however, indicate that this supernova remnant may be much older and thus not associated with SN 1181.

Volcanic eruptions

Major volcanic eruptions pre-Renaissance
Name Year Date Location Comments Refs
Mystery 1465~ AD ? The 1465 mystery eruption was a large volcanic eruption conjectured to have taken place in 1465 or "the early 1460s". The location of this eruption is uncertain, as it has only been identified from distant ice core records and atmospheric events around the time of King Alfonso II of Naples's wedding in 1465; it is believed to have been VEI-7 and possibly even larger than Mount Tambora's 1815 eruption. [V 1]
Samalas 1257 AD Lombok, Indonesia The Samalas volcano erupted in 1257 on Lombok Island in Indonesia. The event had a probable Volcanic Explosivity Index of 7[a], making it one of the largest volcanic eruptions during the current Holocene epoch. It created eruption columns reaching tens of kilometres into the atmosphere and pyroclastic flows that buried much of Lombok Island and crossed the sea to reach the neighbouring island of Sumbawa. The flows destroyed human habitations, including the city of Pamatan, which was the capital of a kingdom on Lombok. Ash from the eruption fell as far as 340 kilometres (210 mi) away in Java; the volcano deposited more than 10 cubic kilometres (2.4 cu mi) of rocks and ash. The eruption was witnessed by people who recorded it on the Babad Lombok, a document written on palm leaves. It left behind a large caldera that contains Lake Segara Anak. Later volcanic activity created more volcanic centres in the caldera, including the Barujari cone, which remains active. The aerosols injected into the atmosphere reduced the solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface, cooling the atmosphere for several years and leading to famines and crop failures in Europe and elsewhere, although the exact scale of the temperature anomalies and their consequences is still debated. The eruption may have helped trigger the Little Ice Age, a centuries-long cold period during the last thousand years. Before the site of the eruption was known, an examination of ice cores around the world had found a large spike in sulfate deposition around 1257, providing strong evidence of a large volcanic eruption having occurred somewhere in the world. In 2013, scientists linked the historical records about Mount Samalas to these spikes. [V 2]
Paektu 946~ AD North Korea & China The 946 eruption of Paektu Mountain, also known as the Millennium Eruption or Tianchi eruption, was one of the most powerful in recorded history and is classified as a VEI 7 event. The eruption resulted in a brief period of significant climate change in Manchuria. The year of the eruption has not been precisely determined, but a possible year is A.D. 946. The eruption ejected about 100–120 cubic kilometres (24–29 cu mi) of tephra and collapsed the mountain into a caldera, which now contains the crater lake Heaven Lake. The eruption began with a strong Plinian column, and ended with voluminous pyroclastic flows. An average of 5 cm (2.0 in) of Plinian ashfall and coignimbrite ashfall covered about 1,500,000 km2 (580,000 sq mi) of the Sea of Japan and northern Japan. This ash layer has been named the "Baegdusan-Tomakomai ash"(B-Tm). It probably occurred in winter in late A.D. 946. This was one of the largest and most violent eruptions in the last 5000 years along with the Hatepe eruption of Lake Taupo at around 180 AD, the 1257 eruption of Mount Samalas near Mount Rinjani, and the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora. [V 3]
Hatepe 180~ AD New Zealand The Hatepe eruption, named for the Hatepe Plinian pumice tephra layer, sometimes referred to as the Taupo eruption and dated to around 180 AD, was Lake Taupo's most recent major eruption. It is considered New Zealand's largest eruption during the last 20,000 years. The eruption ejected some 120 km3 (29 cu mi), of which 30 km3 (7.2 cu mi) was ejected in a few minutes. This makes it one of the most violent eruptions in the last 5000 years, comparable to the Minoan eruption in the 2nd millennium BC, the 946 eruption of Paektu Mountain and the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora. The resulting ash turned the sky red over Rome and China. [V 4]
Vesuvius 79~ AD Italy This is considered the most violent eruption of the Vesuvius in historical times. Dated in 79 AD, it destroyed the Roman cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, Oplontis and Stabiae, as well as several other settlements. The only surviving eyewitness account of the event consists of two letters by Pliny the Younger to the historian Tacitus. Fomenko dates the events in 1500. Fomenko and others before him suggest that this eruption is described in the Old Testament and the Koran as the destruction of Sodom and Gomorra. There are many places in the old Testament that could be describing an active Volaco: "the Lord said unto Moses, Lo, I come unto thee in a thick cloud… upon mount Sinai… when the trumpet soundeth long, they shall come up to the mount… there were thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the mount, and the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud… And mount Sinai was altogether in smoke, because the Lord descended upon it in fire: and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly. And when the voice of the trumpet sounded long, and waxed louder and louder, Moses spake, and God answered him by a voice.” (Exodus 19:9, 19:11, 19:13, 19:16, 19:18-19) and "Then the Lord rained down brimstone and fire on Sodom and on Gomorrah from the Lord out of heaven, and He overthrew (demolished, ended) those cities, and the entire valley, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and whatever grew on the ground.” (Genesis 19:24-25). Others have looked for evidence of a volcano or the 2 cities around the Middle East, without success. [V 5]
  • Extreme weather events of 535–536[X 1]

" "

Earthquakes

Major earthquakes pre-Renaissance
Date Time Place Lat Long Deaths Mag Comments Sources
1831 BC or 1731 BC or 1652 BC Xia China
Mount Tai earthquake
? ? Listed in the Bamboo Annals [Q 1]
464 BC Sparta, Greece
464 BC Sparta earthquake
? 7.2 (approx) Template:M Led to a helot uprising and strained relations with Athens, one of the factors that led to the Peloponnesian War [Q 2]
226 BC Rhodes, Greece
226 BC Rhodes earthquake
? Destroyed Colossus of Rhodes and city of Kameiros [Q 3]
60 BC Portugal and Galicia coasts ? 8.5 Caused a tsunami [Q 4]
AD 17 At night Asia minor
17 AD Lydia earthquake
37.85 27.3 ? Destroyed 13 cities in Asia (minor) Described by the historians Tacitus and Pliny the Elder
February 5, AD 62 Bay of Naples, Italy
62 Pompeii earthquake
? 5–6 Brought down a large part of Pompeii, caused severe damage in Herculaneum and Nuceria. Seneca describes it in his "Quaestiones Naturales VI" [Q 5]
AD 110 Dian Kingdom, Yunnan, southwestern China probably thousands Flooded administrative centre of the Dian Kingdom [Q 6]
December 13, AD 115 Antioch, Middle East
115 Antioch earthquake
36.1 36.1 ~260,000 7.5 Ms [Q 7]
May 18, 363 AD Syria
Galilee earthquake of 363
"thousands" ~7 Destruction also in "The Holy Land", Petra Ammianus Marcellinus[Q 8] and numerous other late Antiquity writers[Q 9]
July 21, AD 365 Crete (Greece)
365 Crete earthquake
"thousands" XI Destruction also in Cyrene & Alexandria (by tsunami). Uplifted Crete by 9 metres. Ammianus Marcellinus[Q 8] and numerous other late Antiquity writers[Q 9]
382 Cape St. Vincent, Portugal 7.5 According to Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus, the earthquake and corresponding tsunami sank two islets that were situated near Cape St. Vincent. Ammianus Marcellinus
May 19, AD 526 Antioch, Turkey
526 Antioch earthquake
250,000 7.0 The city of Antioch was greatly damaged, and some decades later the city's population was just 300,000. Procopius, II.14.6; sources based on John of Ephesus
July 6, AD 551 Beirut, Tyre, Tripoli, Lebanon
551 Beirut earthquake
33.9 35.5 30,000 7.5 Mw Triggered a devastating tsunami, all the cities of the Phoenician coast from Tyre to Tripoli were reduced to ruins [Q 10]
January 18, AD 749[Q 11][2] The Levant
749 Galilee earthquake
"tens of thousands" 7 to 7.5 (approx) The cities of Tiberias, Beit She'an, Hippos and Pella were largely destroyed while many other cities across the Levant region were heavily damaged. [Q 11]
November 24, AD 847 Damascus, Syria
847 Antioch earthquake
33.5 36.3 70,000 7.3   [Q 10][3]
December AD 856 Corinth, Greece 37.9 22.9 45,000   [Q 12][Q 13]
December 22, AD 856 (aftershocks for about a year) Qumis, Iran. From Khuvar to Bastam and Gurgan. The town of Qumis (Hecatompylos) hardest hit.
856 Damghan earthquake
36.23 54.14 45,000–200,000. The city of Qumis was half destroyed and had 45,096 casualties. [Q 12][4]
July 13, AD 869 Sendai, Japan
869 Sanriku earthquake
38.5 143.8 ~1,000 8.6–9.0 Ms [Q 14]
March 23, AD 893 Ardabil, Iran
893 Ardabil earthquake
38.28 48.30 150,000 Regarded as a 'fake earthquake', due to misunderstanding of original Armenian sources for the 893 Dvin event.[Q 15][Q 16][Q 17][Q 18]
December 28, AD 893 Dvin, Armenia
893 Dvin earthquake
40.0 44.6 30,000 Mislocated in India [Q 19]
December, 1037 Taizhou, Jiangsu, China 32.0 119.0 22,391 [Q 20][5]
August 12, 1042 Palmyra, Baalbek, Syria, Lebanon 35.1 38.9 50,000 7.2 (>VIII)   [Q 10][Q 12]
March 18, 1068 Near East
1068 Near East earthquake
20,000 ≥ 7.0   [Q 21][Q 22]
October 11, 1138 Aleppo, Syria
1138 Aleppo earthquake
36.1 36.8 230,000 7.1   [Q 10][Q 19]
August 12, 1157 08:15 Hama, Syria
1157 Hama earthquake
35.1 36.3 "Tens of thousands" 7.2 Template:M Largest in a sequence lasting from late 1156 to early 1159 [Q 10][Q 19][Q 23]
February 4, 1169 Sicily, Italy
1169 Sicily earthquake
37.3 15.0 15,000 X   [Q 24]
June 29, 1170 06:29 Eastern Mediterranean
1170 Syria earthquake
34.4 36.4 5,000[Q 25]-80,000 in Aleppo
25,000 in Hama
7.3–7.5[Q 26] −7.7[6] Syria, Lebanon, central southern Turkey Numerous sources from Crusader times[7][8]
July 5, 1201 and/or May 20, 1202 Eastern Mediterranean
1202 Syria earthquake
1,100,000 (includes famine/disease deaths) 7.6 Damage across a wide area from Syria to Upper Egypt
May 11, 1222 06:15 Cyprus
1222 Cyprus earthquake
34.7 32.6 7.0–7.5 Caused damage at Paphos, Limassol and Nicosia [Q 27]
1268 Cilicia, Anatolia (Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia)
1268 Cilicia earthquake
37.5 35.5 60,000 7 (approx)
September 27, 1290 Chihli (Hopeh), China
1290 Chihli earthquake
41.5 119.3 100,000 6.8 Ms [Q 28]
May 26, 1293 Kamakura, Kanagawa, Kantō, Japan
1293 Kamakura earthquake
35.2 139.4 23,024 7.1   [Q 29]
August 8, 1303 06:00 1303 Crete earthquake, Greece 35 27 up to 10,000 ~8 Triggered a major tsunami that devastated Alexandria in Egypt [Q 30]
January 1, 1341 Crimea, Ukraine Not known 6 [Q 31]
January 25, 1348 15:00 Friuli, Venice, Rome
Earthquake of 1348
46.37 13.58 10,000 6.9 [Q 12]
October 18, 1356 Basel, Switzerland
1356 Basel earthquake
47.5 07.6 1,000 6.2 Template:M [Q 32]
May 21, 1382 Canterbury, UK
1382 Dover Straits earthquake
? 5.8 Struck during synod – later called "Earthquake Synod" – called to condemn heresy of John Wycliffe – some saw as portentous [Q 33][Q 34]
February 2, 1428 Catalonia (now Spain)
Catalan earthquake of 1428
42.4 2.2 1,000s VIII–IX Sometimes called the terratrèmol de la candelera because it took place during the Candlemas. [Q 35][Q 36]
3 May 1481 03:00 Rhodes, Greece
1481 Rhodes earthquake
36.0 28.0 30,000 7.1 Largest of a series that lasted 10 months [Q 37]
September 20, 1498 08:00 local time Honshu, Japan
1498 Nankai earthquake
34.0 138.1 31,000 8.6 Ms [Q 38]

See also

References

Fomenko

History: Fiction or Science? by Anatoly Fomenko and Gleb Nosovskiy

General

Eclipses

Supernovae

  1. Modern estimates vary widely on Supernova 185; see SN 185 for more detail
  2. 2005-04-01 - Ksenofontov, L. T. & Berezhko, E. G. & Völk, H. J. 229-240 - Magnetic field amplification in Tycho and other shell-type supernova remnants, Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 433
  3. "New evidence links stellar remains to oldest recorded supernova" Chandra X-ray Observatory, released 2006-09-18, revised 2009-02-20, retrieved 2010-02-26.
  4. 1994 - Chin et al. - Nature
  5. 2006 - Zhao FY, Strom RG, Jiang SY - The Guest Star of AD185 Must Have Been a Supernova, Chinese J Astron Astrophys. , vol.6, issue 5, pages=635–40
  6. SEDS - Supernova 386
  7. National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) - The Supernova of 386 AD
  8. SIMBAD - SN 393 -- SuperNova, Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg
  9. 2005 - Wang, Zhen-Ru - The impact of historical Chinese astronomical records, Astrophysics and Space Science, vol.305, issue 3, pages 207–210
  10. 1975 - Clark & Stephenson - The remnants of the supernovae of AD 185 and AD 393, The Observatory, vol.95, pages 190–195
  11. 2003 - Green & Stephenson - The Historical Supernovae - 12 pages
  12. 1976 - Clark, Stephenson & Stephenson - Which historical new stars were supernovae, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol.17, pages 290–302
  13. 1998 - Wang et al. - The AD 393 Guest Star ; the SNR RX 51713.7-3946, The Hot Universe. Proceedings of IAU Symposium #188, editors Katsuji Koyama, Shunji Kitamoto, Masayuki Itoh, publisher Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, page=262
  14. 2009 - Acero et al. - A joint spectro-imaging analysis of the XMM-Newton and HESS observations of the supernova remnant RX J1713.7-3946, Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol.505, pages 157–167
  15. 2010 - Berezhko & Völk - Nonthermal and thermal emission from the supernova remnant RX J1713.7-3946, Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol.511, page A34
  16. 2003 - National Optical Astronomy Observatory - Astronomers Peg Brightness of History’s Brightest Star
  17. 2003 - Winkler, P. Frank et al. - The SN 1006 Remnant: Optical Proper Motions, Deep Imaging, Distance, and Brightness at Maximum, The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 585, pages=324–335

Volcanic eruptions

Earthquakes

  1. Bamboo Annals, listed under Xia chapters on King Fa's 7th year.
  2. Template:Cite journal
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  8. 8.0 8.1 Ammianus Marcellinus, "Res Gestae", 26.10.15–19
  9. 9.0 9.1 For summaries of the sources, see Template:Cite journal
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Template:Cite journal
  11. 11.0 11.1 Template:Cite news
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 IISEENET (Information Network of Earthquake disaster Prevention Technologies) – Search Page
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  17. Berberian, M. 2006. Contribution to the Seismotectonics of Iran (Part III). Geological and Mining Survey of Iran.
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  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Template:Cite web Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Ambraseys" defined multiple times with different content
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  25. Ayyubid Architecture, Chapter 7 by Terry Allen
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  28. USGS page of most destructive earthquakes Template:Webarchive
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  31. Template:Cite web
  32. Lambert, J., Winter1, T., Dewez, T.J.B. & Sabourault, P. 2004. New hypotheses on the maximum damage area of the 1356 Basel earthquake (Switzerland). Quaternary Science Reviews, 24, 381–399. Template:Webarchive
  33. "Earthquake Synod." In Cross, F. L. and E. A. Livingstone, eds. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. London: Oxford UP, 1974. p. 437
  34. De Hamel, Christopher. The Book. A History of the Bible. London: Phaidon Press Limited, 2001. p. 169
  35. Josep Perarnau i Espelt (2002). "La lletra de Felip de Malla informant el rei Alfons del terratrèmol de la Candelera, 1428". Arxiu de textos catalans antics, 21:665–670. ISSN 0211-9811
  36. E. Banda and A. M. Correig (1984), "The Catalan earthquake of February 2, 1428", Engineering Geology, 20:89–97.
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  1. Fomenko, New Chronology, p.388
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