Celestial Models

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Celestial Models refers to scientifically tested, hypothesized or otherwise to a certain extent working models of the Cosmos; the relation between Earth and the Celestial Bodies around us; in common language planets, moons, suns, asteroids, stars, comets and other celestial phenomena.

Celestial Models

Convex Earth

  • Geocentrism or Ptolemean - Earth in center, all bodies revolve around us
  • Heliocentrism or Copernican - current mainstream model
  • Geo-Heliocentrism or Tychonian - Earth in center, Venus and Mars revolve around Sun, rest around us, see TYCHOS

Concave Earth

  • Concave or Hollow Earth - all celestial bodies, "space", "the heavens", everything needs to fit in a sphere the size of Earth; reversal of Convex Earth
Gaia's views on Concave Earth

"Impossibilities of the Concave Earth idea


My premises

  • I stick to empirical science as much as possible
  • I do not give any credibility to religious texts (Bible, other religious books) and less on natural-scientific matters like the shape of the Earth. People have claimed the Earth to be Flat, Convex and Concave on the basis of the same books, so that "source" is ruled out

NASA is a complete fraud and so are their "pictures" of space and Earth, making the source unreliable

  • Rocket technology has been developed in and for atmospheric conditions and does not work in absence of an atmosphere
  • I take the Kármán "line"; the "boundary" between atmosphere and space @ around 100 km altitude, as the maximum altitude mankind can and ever will reach
  • Einsteinian "science" I consider a religion in itself; "theoretical" physics is just that; theoretical
  • Gravity is a mysterious force (it would be silly to call it otherwise) but I accept that it exists and is the force pulling everything to Earth when other forces are not there (pressure; atmospheric and subaqueous)
  • Flat Earth is demonstrably wrong on the simplest observations:

o the different angular movement and trajectory of the Sun on June 21st and December 21st yet not showing that; in the same time; 1 day, the Sun moves with equal angular velocity o the impossibility to light Antarctica all day on 21st of December o the lack of a correct map in the past 200 (!) years – the easiest task if the Earth were flat; projecting 2D on 2D o the direction of the sunsets and rises not being W-E o the impossibility of a small close-by Sun and Moon as that would make them look very different in size from two places on Earth

1 – Convex Earth in a Heliocentric System is "wrong" The start of the series on Concave Earth are part 1 and part 2 on why the currently widely accepted model of a convex spinning near-spherical Earth in a Heliocentric system is wrong.

In this series I see some strong arguments (Exhibits C & D; stellar parallax and the Airy problem) but also some points I am not convinced they disprove the current model.

For instance the idea that hovering and flying W-E would be impossible (Exhibits A & B). As far as I understand the current model, the atmosphere is moving with the Earth due to gravity. That means there's no spinning Earth at 1600+ km/h at the equator, while the air/atmosphere above it would be static.

The atmosphere is equally attracted to the Earth and so spins with it. Why would this be incorrect?

2a – The basis of Concave Earth - old maps In the history of Concave Earth we first see old maps hinting towards a concave Earth. What is not shown is the amount of maps hinting towards a convex Earth. So taking only these maps as evidence, while neglecting the other maps is cherry picking.

In ancient times it was very difficult to draw decent maps so several different maps and projections have been tried. Earth is definitely not Flat because of this reason alone; nothing easier than making a flat (2D) map of a flat (2D) reality. So the Earth is either convex or concave.

2b – The basis of Concave Earth – modern maps In this part we see the Mapparium, built in 1935 in Boston. It is presented as evidence for a concave, "hollow" Earth, but there are many more convex Earths built in the world, so again this is cherry picking evidence.

Then it goes on to the Nazis. They had some peculiar ideas to say the least in general, but taking them as some kind of authority on Earth matters seems a bridge too far, let's say.

Game of Thrones is a fictional series and does not serve as evidence either. And again; other fictional series picture a convex Earth, so if the argument is "it appears in a series" cherry picking that one series showing a concave Earth is not fair.

The modern projection of the conical Earth is just another projection system, like the UN "Flat Earth" map is also incorrect in size and distances. Due to the curved surface of the Earth every projection is a compromise that distorts always somewhere.

2c – The Tamarack mine shaft experiments The page on the Tamarack mine experiments is hard to accept as evidence; the results of the experiments are inconclusive; contradictory, too much variation between the results and affected by too many factors. Even with changing materials (copper, iron, lead) the results are not equal.

Both the inconclusiveness of the results and the quantity of tests are too low to draw statistically valid conclusions.

Here we read that the geodesist and member of the Koreshan community, Ulysses Grant Morrow believed in a concave Earth. Again, a deeply religious figure, and this statement surprised me a lot "Morrow and Teed were highly religious folk who were not the sort of people to deliberately lie or mislead." If religiosity is somehow an argument for "not lying", then how can we read in other parts of the blog that Church-based doctrines are bad because they lie? Either a religious person or entity never lies (a ridiculous statement; history and present day shows why, take Barack Obama as an example if you like) or the religiosity of someone does not say anything about the validity of their statements. That would be the more consistent view.

2d – The bending of light (upwards or not) In this blog post one of the arguments to refute a convex Earth is the laser experiment performed. For the sake of argument let's assume this is genuine and honest. However, the experiment assumes that light travels straight and doesn't bend. Yet in this blog post, called "Bendy light", it is stated that the bending of light should be upward.

It cannot be both ways; if light bends upward, then a different review of the first experiment is needed in order to "disprove" a convex Earth.

3 – There "is" glass in the sky The section on the glass "ceiling" that is inferred leans heavily on NASA information which not only I but also you, Wild Heretic, in your excellent satellites section refute. Using this information here as back-up for the claims of a glass sky is using water from a poisonous well.

4 – Is the moon an optical illusion? Here it is claimed that the Moon is "just an optical illusion". That is a bit problematic.

Why would the Moon be an optical illusion when its effect can be measured on Earth (leap tides)? And what are the craters on the Moon if it were an optical illusion?

The clarity of the Moon becomes clear (haha) when looking through a telescope. It immediately debunks the NASA "footage" of the Moon but also shows to the eye why; there's no atmosphere so both shadow and sun-lit parts are extremely clear; high contrast between them.

5 – The Sun as a lightbulb The part on the Sun and meteorites is not quite clear to me. The meteorites shown in the pictures obviously are formed by different minerals in a "volcanic-like" rock. It is stated that they come from the alleged "glass sky". Yet the meteorites show crystalline material.

Crystalline and glass are directly contradicting; glass is absence of crystals. Crystalline rocks may contain glassy particles, but where are the crystals coming from and how are the different minerals formed then? And how can something fall through glass without breaking it and leaving permanent traces on that "glass sky"?

6 – What are Earthquakes? In this very short description you make the statement that "earthquakes are the result of the reverse piezo-electric effect from lightning strikes caused by the electrically charged Sun".

Earthquakes in the current model are the result of tectonics; released friction along fault lines. They can be traced using seismic waves which rely on a convex sphere. This is impossible in a concave "hole".

It is not explained how those observations are possible. It is not explained how this relation between the "piezo-electric effect" and earthquakes is established.

It is not explained how come we have an increased abundance of earthquakes along fault lines and not in lightning-rich areas.

7 – How does Plate Tectonics work on a Concave Earth? This question is the same for Flat Earth where it becomes impossible; continents would fall off the dish and need to be recreated somewhere else.

On a concave "hollow" Earth a similar problem arises; how is the easily observable circum Pacific Ring of Fire produced on a concave surface? How is this magma produced on the outside of the concave Earth?

8 - What are magnetism and the Aurora Borealis/Australis? The current model says that magnetism is produced by the interior of the Earth (which would be the exterior in a concave case) and the effect of that in the skies is visible around the poles; the Auroras.

In a concave case, how is magnetism produced and what are the Auroras if the Earth is not a convex sphere?

9 - The size of the Sun and Moon as seen from different parts of the Earth The present model assumes a "large" far away Moon (~360,000 km) and a huge very far away Sun (~150,000,000 km). The Sun and Moon look similar in size when viewed from different parts of the Earth.

Both Flat Earth and the Concave Earth Hypothesis assume a small Sun and Moon close by.

In a Concave case the center of the interior hole is maximum 1 rEarth away, so ~6400 km. It needs to be small to fit in there which means that the Sun as observed on June 21st from Mexico City (~ Tropic of Cancer) would look much bigger than the same Sun as seen on the same day from Rio de Janeiro (~ Tropic of Capricorn).

How come the Sun (and Moon) always look similar in size when viewed from different parts of the Earth?

10 – The inconsistencies of the model The current widely accepted heliocentric convex spherical Earth model is consistent in nature; all objects are spheres or near-spheres; planets, moons, stars, the Sun, the Earth, meteorites.

The Flat Earth idea is very inconsistent with dishes, domes, spheres (the Sun), strange objects (the Moon), etc.

The Concave Earth model is also inconsistent; the Earth is supposed to be a hollow sphere, stars are points, the Sun needs to be spherical otherwise it cannot show as a circle from wherever you are on Earth, the Moon and planets are "optical illusions".

11 – The list of introductory videos I like to see things explained in simple videos so I checked the list of introductory links first. Here I started watching the videos by: "Lord Steven Christ" - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xDSS5k-105M "ka rol" - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EGTe5h2M2QU "GodRules" - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_NCBSAf3hIk

The first video leans on the Bible but that was not the part I switched it off. Lord Steven Christ started to introduce "from NASA we know that..." and that closed the deal for me. The same for the third video by GodRules, after some minutes "from pictures from the ISS we know...". The second video was not very illustrative.

If there are excellent videos showing the main points in a coherent way preferably avoiding Biblical arguments but definitely no NASA fakery, I am all ears."[G 1]

Flat Earth

  • Flat Earth - not a valid celestial or geographical and geological model of Earth; impossible physically. Celestial model does not work either.
Gaia's views on Flat Earth

"Impossibilities of the Flat Earth idea


1 - geometrical impossibilities of the Flat Earth map 2 - trigonometrical impossibilities of Flat Earth 3 - illumination & climate impossibilities of Flat Earth 4 - geological impossibilities of Flat Earth
1 - the Flat Earth map cannot represent the continents in the right way

Due to the distortion at the edge of the Flat Earth (or the southern hemisphere in spherical Earth) the size of Australia is extremely boosted. Also the size of North America becomes too small, Africa suddenly becomes bigger than Asia. This makes it an impossible map to hold.

2 - there are multiple problems with the trigonometry and the movement of the Sun in the Flat Earth idea

In Flat Earth the Sun is supposed to be tiny (some 32 miles across?) and very close by (only 5000 miles). It makes the Sun about 100,000 times smaller than the Earth and very close to the surface. On 21st of June the Sun is roughly in zenith above Dubai (tropic of Cancer). On 21st of December the Sun is roughly in zenith above Rio de Janeiro (tropic of Capricorn).

This makes that the Sun is only 5000 miles away on 21-Jun/21-Dec in Dubai/Rio. This means the Sun is supposedly much closer to Dubai on 21 Jun than in Rio on the same day. Yet, the apparent size of the Sun is the same. That is impossible if the Sun is so tiny as the slightest variation in size is noticed immediately. That the Sun looks equal in size from wherever you are on Earth points to a big Sun and far away and not to a tiny Sun (smaller than the island of Bali!) close by.

This effect is even enhanced when we look at Oslo/Ushuaia (~55 deg North/South). From those places the Sun on 21 Dec/21 Jun is 10,200 km away; more than twice as far as the Sun is from Dubai/Rio on the same day. Yet the Sun does not look twice as big from those places.

On top of that the supposition that the Earth is flat makes that the Sun has a much bigger circle ("orbit") on 21 Dec than on 21 Jun. The angular velocity of the Sun across the sky however is the same (1 Earth day). It would mean the Sun moves much (almost 70%) faster on 21 Dec than on 21 Jun to keep holding this idea.

Yet the same amounts of light and heart are produced per surface area, something which is impossible with variable circling velocities (to not use "orbital velocity").

3 - in a Flat Earth situation the center of the circle/North Polar region receives much more heat than the edge/southern hemisphere

Yet we do not observe any climatic biasing pattern based on that flat idea on Earth. The arctic region is much colder than the equatorial region while in a Flat Earth the latter receives much less heat (per time and per area).

The illumination of the arctic on 21st June is all-day, while the same effect happens on Earth on 21st Dec in the antarctic region. In a Flat Earth model it is impossible to illuminate Antarctica 24/7; so it does not coincide with the observations making it an impossible 'model' for the Earth.

4 - I am very curious to hear any explanation of plate tectonics on a Flat Earth

What happens; are continents "falling off the Flat Earth" or how are continents moving through geological time? In a Flat Earth idea, what is causing the Atlantic coastal shapes of Africa and South America to fit so perfectly?

The question is also where the magma producing volcanic areas is coming from in a Flat Earth and how come it is so restricted to the well-studied volcanic provinces and chains on Earth, with the most notable example the circum-Pacific Ring of Fire."[G 2]

Celestial Model Researchers

Legend
Geocentrists
Heliocentrists
Tychonists
Unknown/uncertain
Flat and Hollow Earthers
Celestial Researchers
Sys Name
Main proponents in bold
Centuries Description Chapters Notes
T Simon Shack 21st Author of TYCHOS. [T 1]
T Tycho Brahe 16/17th Danish astronomer responsible for the development of the Tychonian model, upon which the TYCHOS is based. Preface, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 18, 26, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36 [WR 1]
H Hipparchus -2nd Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician, is considered the founder of trigonometry but is most famous for his incidental discovery of precession of the equinoxes. 30, 32, 36 [T 2]
[WR 2]
U Sosigenes of Alexandria -1st Greek astronomer from Ptolemaic Egypt who, according to Roman historian Pliny the Elder, was consulted by Julius Caesar for the design of the Julian calendar. 32 [WR 3]
G Ptolemy 2nd Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer and astrologer responsible for the development of the geocentric model. 6, 18, 27, 30, 36 [WR 4]
G Aztec astronomy 15th< Archaeoastronomy of the Aztec, central Mexico. Preface, 27, 32 [T 3]
[WR 5]
G Maya astronomy 15th< Archaeoastronomy of the Maya, Yucatán, Mexico and Guatemala. Their advanced calendar contained the synodic period for Venus and the different Emperical Synodic Intervals for Mars. Preface, 6, 32, 33 [T 4][T 5]
[WR 6]
T Nilakantha Somayaji 15/16th Indian mathematician and astronomer of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. One of his most influential works was the comprehensive astronomical treatise Tantrasamgraha completed in 1501. Preface, 2 [T 6]
[WR 7]
T Longomontanus 16/17th Danish astronomer who really developed Tycho's geoheliocentric model empirically and publicly to common acceptance in the 17th century in his 1622 astronomical tables. He published the voluminous Astronomia Danica (1622), regarded as the testament of Tycho Brahe. Preface, 5, 12 [WR 8]
H Nicolaus Copernicus 16th Polish/Prussian mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe. The publication of Copernicus' model in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium in 1543 was a major event in the history of science, triggering the Copernican Revolution. Preface, 5, 6, 18, 35, 36, Epilogue [WR 9]
H Galileo Galilei 16/17th Italian polymath, central figure in the transition from natural philosophy to modern science and transformation of the scientific Renaissance into a scientific revolution. Galileo's championing of heliocentrism and Copernicanism was controversial during his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system. Preface, 12 [WR 10]
H Johannes Kepler 17th German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer, best known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy, provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation. Preface, 5, 6, 11, 20, 26, Epilogue [WR 11]
H Giovanni Cassini 17th Italian mathematician, astronomer and engineer. Discoverer of 4 moons of Saturn. 36 [WR 12]
U Giovanni Riccioli 17th Italian astronomer and Catholic priest in the Jesuit order. He is known, for his experiments with pendulums and with falling bodies, for his discussion of 126 arguments concerning the motion of the Earth, for describing the first binary star system and for introducing the current scheme of lunar nomenclature. 1 [WR 13]
T Cristoph Scheiner 17th German Jesuit priest, physicist and astronomer who discovered the changes in sunspots, published in 1630. 12 [T 7]
[WR 14]
H Isaac Newton 17/18th English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist, widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687), laid the foundations of classical mechanics. Preface, 4, 10, 28, Epilogue [WR 15]
U Ole Roemer 17th/18th Danish astronomer who in 1676 made the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light, persuaded the king to introduce the Gregorian calendar in Denmark-Norway — something Tycho Brahe had argued for in vain a hundred years earlier. 26 [WR 16]
H James Bradley 18th English astronomer and priest. Best known for two fundamental discoveries in astronomy, the aberration of light (1725–1728), and the nutation of the Earth's axis (1728–1748). Preface, 26, 34, Epilogue [T 8]
[WR 17]
T Pathani Samanta 19th Indian astronomer and scholar who measured the distance from earth with a bamboo pipe and many other traditional instruments that he built. His observations, research and calculations were compiled into a book Siddhanta Darpana. He reached the same conclusions as Tycho Brahe - yet also failed to envisage that Earth must logically have an orbit (both imagined Earth as an orbitless, immobile body). Preface, 2, 6 [T 5]
[WR 18]
H Friedrich Bessel 19th German astronomer, mathematician, physicist and geodesist. He was the first astronomer who determined reliable values for the distance from the sun to another star by the method of parallax. 36 [WR 19]
U Simon Newcomb 19th Canadian–American astronomer, applied mathematician and autodidactic polymath, made important contributions to timekeeping. 30, 36 [WR 20]
U Rudolf Steiner 19/20th Austrian philosopher, social reformer, architect and esotericist, founded an esoteric spiritual movement, anthroposophy, with roots in German idealist philosophy and theosophy; other influences include Goethean science and Rosicrucianism. Preface [WR 21]
H Albert Einstein 20th German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, awarded Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921. Preface, 3, 4, 6, 10, Epilogue [WR 22]
U John Knight Fotheringham 20th British historian who was an expert on ancient astronomy and chronology. He established the chronology of the Babylonian dynasties. 30 [WR 23]
U Robert Russell Newton 20th American physicist, astronomer, and historian of science, known for his work on change of the rotation rate of the Earth, and historical observations of eclipses. 30 [WR 24]
U Vittorio Goretti 20th Italian amateur astronomer and a discoverer of minor planets, discovered 32 main-belt asteroids. 36 [WR 25]
U Theodor Landscheidt 20th German author, astrologer and amateur climatologist. 13 [T 9]
[WR 26]
T Karl-Heinz Homann 20th/21st German electronic technician. 33 [T 10]
T Howard Margolis 20th/21st American social scientist. His study of social theory focused on the underpinnings of individual choice and judgment that shape aggregate social outcomes. 1 [T 11]
[WR 27]
T James Schombert 20th/21st American astrophysicist (1984, Yale), Fields of research: Galaxy Surveys, Evolution and Properties of Galaxies. 1 [T 12]
[1]
T Walter Cruttenden 20th/21st American amateur theoretical archaeo-astronomer and author of the binary theory of precession. 1, 18, 24, 30, 33 [T 13]
[2]
U Anthony Ayiomamitis 21st Greek astrophotographer. 26 [3]
T Christopher Graney 21st American professor of physics and astronomy. Preface, 5 [4]
[5]
F Anaxagoras -5th Greek philosopher and scientist whose observations of the celestial bodies and the fall of meteorites led him to form new theories of the universal order, and to a putative prediction of the impact of a meteorite in 467. He attempted to give a scientific account of eclipses, meteors, rainbows, and the sun, which he described as a mass of blazing metal, larger than the Peloponnese. The heavenly bodies, he asserted, were masses of stone torn from the Earth and ignited by rapid rotation. He was the first to give a correct explanation of eclipses, and was both famous and notorious for his scientific theories, including the claims that the Sun is a mass of red-hot metal, that the Moon is earthy, and that the stars are fiery stones. He thought the earth was flat and floated supported by 'strong' air under it and disturbances in this air sometimes caused earthquakes. [WR 28]
G Aristotle -4th Greek philosopher and scientist, considered the "Father of Western Philosophy". [WR 29]
G Heraclides Ponticus -4th Greek philosopher and astronomer, incorrectly named the father of heliocentrism. [WR 30]
G Theophrastus -3rd Greek biologist and physicist, student of Aristotle. Published Heaven. [WR 31]
G Eratosthenes -3rd Greek mathematician, geographer, astronomer, invented the discipline of geography, best known for being the first person to calculate the circumference of the Earth and also the first to calculate the tilt of the Earth's axis. He may have accurately calculated the distance from the Earth to the Sun and invented the leap day, created the first map of the world, incorporating parallels and meridians. He also calculated the Sun's diameter at about 27 times that of the Earth, in reality it is approximately 109 times. [WR 32]
H Aristarchus of Samos -3rd Greek astronomer and mathematician, the father of heliocentrism, suspected the stars were other suns that are very far away, and that in consequence there was no observable parallax; movement of the stars relative to each other as the Earth moves around the Sun. [WR 33]
H Seleucus of Seleucia -2nd Mesopotamian astronomer and philosopher, proponent of heliocentrism, the first to assume the universe to be infinite. [WR 34]
T Macrobius 4th/5th Roman writer who presented a discourse upon the nature of the cosmos, transmitting much classical philosophy to the later Middle Ages. In astronomy, this work is noted for giving the diameter of the Sun as twice the diameter of the Earth. [WR 35]
T Martianus Capella 5th Latin prose writer of Late Antiquity, one of the earliest developers of the system of the seven liberal arts that structured early medieval education. His single encyclopedic work was De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii. [WR 36]
G Aryabhata 5th/6th Indian mathematician and astronomer. He ascribed the apparent motions of the heavens to the Earth's rotation. He may have believed that the planet's orbits as elliptical rather than circular. Aryabhata correctly insisted that the Earth rotates about its axis daily, and that the apparent movement of the stars is a relative motion caused by the rotation of the Earth, contrary to the then-prevailing view, that the sky rotated. He described a geocentric model of the solar system, in which the Sun and Moon are each carried by epicycles. They in turn revolve around the Earth. In this model, the motions of the planets are each governed by two epicycles, smaller and larger. The order of the planets in terms of distance from Earth is taken as: the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the asterisms. [WR 37]
G Al-Battani 9th/10th Arab astronomer, astrologer, and mathematician. He introduced a number of trigonometric relations, and his Kitāb az-Zīj was frequently quoted by many medieval astronomers, including Copernicus. He was able to correct some of Ptolemy's results and compiled new tables of the Sun and Moon, long accepted as authoritative. Some of his measurements were even more accurate than ones taken by Copernicus many centuries later. Al-Battānī discovered that the direction of the Sun's apogee, as recorded by Ptolemy, was changing. Copernicus quoted him in the book that initiated the Copernican Revolution, the De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, where his name is mentioned no fewer than 23 times, and also mentioned in the Commentariolus. Al-Battānī was frequently quoted by Tycho Brahe, Riccioli, among others. Kepler and Galileo showed interest in some of his observations. [WR 38]
G Azophi 10th Persian astronomer who identified the Large Magellanic Cloud and made the earliest recorded observation of the Andromeda Galaxy, the first galaxies other than the Milky Way to be observed from Earth. He observed that the ecliptic plane is inclined with respect to the celestial equator and more accurately calculated the length of the tropical year. He observed and described the stars, their positions, their magnitudes and their colour. For each constellation, he provided two drawings, one from the outside of a celestial globe, and the other from the inside (as seen from the Earth). [WR 39]
G Alhazen 10th/11th Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist, honored as Ptolemaeus secundus, kept a geocentric universe and assumed that celestial motions are uniformly circular, which required the inclusion of epicycles to explain observed motion, published in The Model of the Motions of Each of the Seven Planets (~1038). [WR 40]
G Avicenna 11th Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age. He claimed to have observed Venus as a spot on the Sun, there was a transit on May 24, 1032, to help establish that Venus was, at least sometimes, below the Sun in Ptolemaic cosmology, i.e. the sphere of Venus comes before the sphere of the Sun when moving out from the Earth in the prevailing geocentric model. He considered the motion of the solar apogee, which Ptolemy had taken to be fixed. [WR 41]
G Avempace 11th Arab Andalusian polymath, astronomer, physicist and philosopher. He published a theory in which the motion of the stars and planets is uniform and circular, and in agreement with observation. [WR 42]
G Averroes 12th Andalusian Moorish polymath, philosopher, mathematician and astronomer. Popularized the work of Aristotle. [WR 43]
G Al Shirazi 13th Persian polymath, astronomer, mathematician and physicist. Followed up on Ptolemy and in The Limit of Accomplishment concerning Knowledge of the Heavens discussed the possibility of heliocentrism. [WR 44]
H Shirazi
G Tusi 13th Persian polymath, astronomer, mathematician, physicist and theologian. His model for the planetary system is believed to be the most advanced of his time, and was used extensively until the development of the heliocentric model in the time of Nicolaus Copernicus. Between Ptolemy and Copernicus, he is considered by many to be one of the most eminent astronomers of his time. [WR 45]
G Ulugh Beg 15th Persian astronomer and mathematician, built an enormous observatory, similar to Tycho Brahe's later Uraniborg. Using it, he compiled the 1437 Zij-i-Sultani of 994 stars, considered the greatest star catalogue between those of Ptolemy and Brahe. He determined the length of the sidereal year as 365.2570370...d = 365d 6h 10m 8s (an error of +58 seconds) and a more precise value of tropical year as 365d 5h 49m 15s, which has an error of +25 seconds, making it more accurate than Copernicus's estimate. He determined the Earth's axial tilt as 23;30,17 degrees (23.5047 degrees). [WR 46]
G Muisca astronomy 15th< Archaeoastronomy of the Muisca, Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Colombia. [WR 47]
H Regiomontanus 15th German mathematician and astronomer who formulated a theory of heliocentrism. Copernicus lists him as an inspiration. He observed the Comet of 1472 and tried to estimate its distance from Earth, using the angle of parallax. [WR 48]
G Taki 16th Ottoman engineer, astronomer, mathematician and physicist. Taki's method of finding coordinates of stars was reportedly more precise than those of his contemporaries, Tycho Brahe and Nicolas Copernicus. Brahe is thought to have been aware of Taqi ad-Din's work. [WR 49]
G Erasmus Reinhold 16th German astronomer and mathematician, considered to be the most influential astronomical pedagogue of his generation. Reinhold knew about Copernicus and his heliocentric ideas prior to the publication of De revolutionibis and made a favourable reference to him in his commentary on Purbach. However, Reinhold (like other astronomers before Kepler and Galileo) translated Copernicus' mathematical methods back into a geocentric system, rejecting heliocentric cosmology on physical and theological grounds. In Reinhold's unpublished commentary on De revolutionibus, he calculated the distance from the Earth to the sun. He "massaged" his calculation method in order to arrive at an answer close to that of Ptolemy. [WR 50]
G Julius Caesar Scaliger 16th Italian scholar and physician, who influenced Kepler, though he rejected the discoveries of Copernicus. He was guided by Aristotle in metaphysics and in natural history. Leibniz and William Hamilton recognized him as the best modern exponent of the physics and metaphysics of Aristotle. [WR 51]
H Christian Wurstisen 16th Swiss mathematician, theologician and historian. The second edition of Nicolaus Copernicus's De revolutionibus orbium coelestium had been printed in Basel. Wurstisen is credited to have first introduced Copernicus' work to Galileo Galilei, while Galilei's adoption of heliocentrism was often attributed to Michael Maestlin. Christian Wurstisen is mentioned by name in Galileo's Dialogue. This attribution has been challenged, however, and another similarly named man, Christopher Wursteisen, has been credited with introducing Copernicus's theories to Padua. [WR 52]
H Thomas Digges 16th English mathematician and astronomer, translated Copernicus' work in English. He attempted to determine the parallax of the 1572 supernova observed by Tycho Brahe, and concluded it had to be beyond the orbit of the Moon. This contradicted the accepted view of the universe, according to which no change could take place among the fixed stars. [WR 53]
H Christoph Rothmann 16th German mathematician and astronomer. [WR 54]
T Valentin Naboth 16th German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, author of a general textbook on astrology Enarratio elementorum astrologiae. Renowned for calculating the mean annual motion of the Sun, his writings are chiefly devoted to commenting upon Ptolemy and the Arabian astrologers. [WR 55]
T Paul Wittich 16th German mathematician and astronomer, who may have inspired Tycho Brahe for his Tychonic system. He may have been influenced by Valentin Naboth's book Primarum de coelo et terra in adopting the Capellan system to explain the motion of the inferior planets. It is evident from Wittich's diagram of his Capellan system that the Martian orbit does not intersect the solar orbit nor those of Mercury and Venus. [WR 56]
T Francesco Maurolico 16th Sicilian mathematician and astronomer, sighted the supernova that appeared in Cassiopeia in 1572, known as Tycho's Supernova of 1574. His De Sphaera Liber Unus (1575) contains a fierce attack against Copernicus' heliocentrism, in which Maurolico writes that Copernicus "deserved a whip or a scourge rather than a refutation". [WR 57]
T Nicolaus Reimers 16th German mathematician and astronomer to Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II. [WR 58]
G Christopher Clavius 16th/17th German Jesuit mathematician and astronomer. [WR 59]
G Giovanni Antonio Magini 16th/17th Italian astronomer, astrologer, cartographer, and mathematician. In 1588 he was chosen over Galileo Galilei to occupy the chair of mathematics at the University of Bologna. Magini supported a geocentric system of the world, in preference to Copernicus's heliocentric system. Magini devised his own planetary theory, in preference to other existing ones. The Maginian System consisted of eleven rotating spheres, which he described in his Novæ cœlestium orbium theoricæ congruentes cum observationibus N. Copernici (1589). He corresponded with Tycho Brahe, Clavius, Abraham Ortelius, and Johann Kepler. [WR 60]
G David Gans 16th/17th Jewish-German chronicler, mathematician, historian, astronomer and astrologer. He settled about 1564 in Prague, where he came into contact with Kepler and Tycho Brahe, and took part for three consecutive days in astronomical observations at the Prague observatory. He also carried on a scientific correspondence with Regiomontanus, and was charged by Tycho Brahe with the translation of the Alfonsine Tables from Hebrew into German. Although acquainted with the work of Copernicus, Gans followed the Ptolemaic system, attributing the Copernican system to the Pythagoreans. [WR 61]
G Johannes van Heeck 16th/17th Dutch physician, naturalist, alchemist and astrologer. After traveling through Europe, he settled in Prague at the court of Emperor Rudolf II, who had been patron to Tycho Brahe until his death in 1601, and at the time of van Heeck's arrival, was still patron to Johan Kepler. Both Lodovico delle Colombe and Kepler published their accounts of Kepler's Supernova (1604) in 1606. Van Heeck was ready to publish before them, sending his manuscript of De Nova Stella Disputatio ('Discussion of the New Star') to Federico Cesi in Rome in January 1605. Using techniques developed by Tycho Brahe, he concluded that the supernova showed no sign of parallax, meaning it must have been located among the 'fixed' stars of the firmament. He agreed with Tycho Brahe, however he reconciled this conclusion with the Aristotelian model. Cesi greatly esteemed Kepler, and therefore edited van Heeck's text, removing anything hostile to him or to other astronomers. He also removed much of the defence of the Aristotelian cosmology, as it was important for the Accademia to align itself to new astronomical discoveries. Van Heeck was furious at these editorial changes. [WR 62]
H Michael Maestlin 16th/17th German astronomer and mathematician, known for being the mentor of Johannes Kepler. Although he primarily taught the traditional geocentric Ptolemaic view of the solar system, Maestlin was also one of the first to accept and teach the heliocentric Copernican view. Maestlin corresponded with Kepler frequently and played a sizable part in his adoption of the Copernican system. Galileo Galilei's adoption of heliocentrism was also attributed to Maestlin. He observed the Great Comet of 1577, as did Tycho Brahe and Helisaeus Roeslin, as well as described the occultation of Mars by Venus on 13 October 1590. [WR 63]
H Christoph Grienberger 16th/17th Austrian Jesuit astronomer who supported Galilei. [WR 64]
H Odo van Maelcote 16th/17th Southern-Dutch (Belgian) Jesuit astronomer and mathematician who supported Galilei. [WR 65]
[WR 66]
[WR 67]
G Giuseppe 16th/17th Italian Jesuit astronomer, mathematician and selenographer. Very much opposed to the Copernican model. [WR 68]
T Biancani
T Johannes Praetorius 16th/17th German mathematician and astronomer. [WR 69]
T Helisaeus Roeslin 16th/17th German physician and astrologer who adopted a geoheliocentric model of the universe. He was one of five observers who concluded that the Great Comet of 1577 was located beyond the Moon. Roeslin had known Johannes Kepler since their student days and was one of his correspondents. Roeslin placed more emphasis on astrological predictions than did Kepler, and though he respected Kepler as a mathematician, he rejected some of Kepler's cosmological principles, including Copernican theory. [WR 70]
T Simon Marius 16th/17th German astronomer, who in 1614 published his work Mundus Iovialis describing the planet Jupiter and its moons. He discovered the planet's four major moons some days before Galileo Galilei. Marius concluded that the geocentric Tychonic system, in which the planets circle the Sun while the Sun circles the Earth, must be the correct world system, or model of the universe. [6]
[WR 71]
H David Fabricius 16th/17th Jewish-German pastor and astronomer who corresponded with Kepler, discovered the first variable star in 1596 and with his son Johannes sunspots independently from Galilei. Besides these two discoveries, little else is known about David Fabricius except his unusual manner of death: after denouncing a local goose thief from the pulpit, the accused man struck him in the head with a shovel and killed him. [WR 72]
H Johannes Fabricius 17th Jewish-German astronomer who with his father David discovered sunspots independently from Galilei. He produced the first publication of sunspots. [WR 73]
H Christiaan Huygens 17th Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution. Inventor of the telescope and discoverer of Titan, largest moon of Saturn, published in Systema saturnium in 1659. [WR 74]
H Johannes Hevelius 17th Polish-Lithuanian astronomer who described the rotation of sunspots, described new constellations, discovered the Moon's libration and was the first to describe comets as in a parabolic path around the Sun. [WR 75]
H Robert Hooke 17th English natural philosopher, architect and polymath, who tried to measure the distance to stars and was an early observer of the rings of Saturn, discovered one of the first observed double-star systems, Gamma Arietis, in 1664. Famous for Hooke's law. [WR 76]
T/U? Willebrord Snellius 17th Dutch astronomer and mathematician, who has met Tycho Brahe and Kepler and was not convinced of the Copernican model. In 1615, he estimated the circumference of the Earth at 38,653 km, actually 40,075 kilometers, so Snellius underestimated the circumference of the earth by 3.5%. Famous for his rediscovery of the law of refraction (1621), known as Snell's law. [WR 77]
H Edmond Halley 17th/18th English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist. Computed the orbit of Halley's comet. He was a Hollow Earther. [WR 78]
H Johann Gabriel 18th German mathematician, astronomer, and cartographer who produced side-by-side maps of the Copernican and Tychonian models with a preference for the former. [WR 79]
T Doppelmayr
H Charles Messier 18th French astronomer most notable for publishing an astronomical catalogue consisting of nebulae and star clusters that came to be known as the 110 "Messier objects". [WR 80]
H Anders Celsius 18th Swedish astronomer, physicist and mathematician, who first made the connection between the aurora borealis with magnetism, established the Earth is flattened spheroid and became the father of the Celsius temperature scale. [WR 81]
H Giuseppe Piazzi 18th/19th Italian priest, mathematician and astronomer who discovered dwarf planet Ceres. [WR 82]
H Barnaba Oriani 18th/19th Italian priest, geodesist and astronomer who described the obliquity of the ecliptic and orbital theory, his greatest achievement was his detailed research of the planet Uranus, calculating its orbital properties, not on a parabolic orbit but rather in a roughly circular orbit, he calculated the orbit in 1783. In 1789, Oriani improved his calculations by accounting for the gravitational effects of Jupiter and Saturn. [WR 83]
H Eise Eisinga 18th/19th Frisian amateur astronomer who built the oldest-existing functioning planetarium in the world. [WR 84]
H Pierre-Simon Laplace 18th/19th French mathematician, physicist and astronomer who believed in the aether, but returned to Newton's gravitational theory. Considered the "Newton of France". [WR 85]
H William Herschel 18th/19th German-English astronomer who improved determination of the rotation period of Mars, the discovery that the Martian polar caps vary seasonally, the discovery of the moons of Uranus Titania and Oberon and Enceladus and Mimas of Saturn. In addition, Herschel discovered infrared radiation. [WR 86]
F Samuel Rowbotham 19th English inventor of the Flat Earth Idea. [G 3]
H John Herschel 19th English polymath, mathematician, astronomer, chemist, inventor, and experimental photographer. He originated the use of the Julian day system in astronomy and named seven moons of Saturn and four moons of Uranus. Involved in the Beavers on the Moon astronomy hoax. [WR 87]
H James South 19th British astronomer who together with John Herschel produced a catalogue of 380 double stars in 1824, reobserving many of the double stars that had been discovered by William Herschel. He observed another 458 double stars over the following year. [WR 88]
H Friedrich von Struve 19th German-Russian astronomer and geodesist, discovered a very large number of double stars and in 1827 published his double star catalogue Catalogus novus stellarum duplicium. He was also the first to measure the parallax of Vega. [WR 89]
H Angelo Secchi 19th Italian Jesuit astronomer, one of the first scientists to state authoritatively that the Sun is a star, revised Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve's catalog of double stars, compiling data for over 10,000 binaries, discovered three comets, and drew some of the first color illustrations of Mars, the first to describe "channels" (canali) on the surface. He observed and made drawings of solar eruptions and sunspots, and compiled records of sunspot activity, proved that the solar corona and coronal prominences observed during a solar eclipse were part of the Sun, and not artifacts of the eclipse and discovered solar spicules. [WR 90]
H Urbain Le Verrier 19th French mathematician who predicted the location of Neptune. [WR 91]
H Johann Gottfried Galle 19th German astronomer who discovered Neptune. [WR 92]
H William Lassell 19th English merchant and astronomer who discovered Triton, the largest moon of Neptune, co-discovered Hyperion, a moon of Saturn and Ariel and Umbriel, two moons of Uranus. [WR 93]
H Asaph Hall 19th American astronomer who discovered Phobos and Deimos, the moons of Mars. [WR 94]
H Clyde Tombaugh 20th American astronomer who discovered (now dwarf-) planet Pluto. [WR 95]
H Gerard Kuiper 20th Dutch-American astronomer who discovered Miranda, moon of Uranus and Nereid, moon of Neptune. The Kuiper Belt is named after him. Was involved in "selecting landing sites for the Apollo program". [WR 96]

Celestial Bodies

Note: bodies with a higher apparent magnitude than about 4 (city) or 6 (faintest) are not visible with the naked eye
The added zeros are for proper sorting

Legend
Appearing in the sky[7] Meaning in TYCHOS[T 14]
March - northern spring, southern fall near-zero parallax
June - northern summer, southern winter positive parallax
September - northern fall, southern spring near-zero parallax
December - northern winter, southern summer negative parallax
All year - Northern/Southern latitudes variable parallaxes
Variable variable parallaxes
dM distance according to Mainstream (ly for stars, AU for planets and moons)
dT distance according to TYCHOS (AU)[T 15]
Star (bold number of exoplanets, p possible planets) stars (many more)[WB 1] and (exoplanets) at TYCHOS distances <78 AU (<52.5 ly) are within TYCHOS binary system sphere (closer than Pluto)
Best-known Celestial Bodies
Sky Name App. magnitude dM dT Description Chapters
bold in detail
Notes
Earth Home. All [WB 2]
Sun -26.74 1 0001 Our star, accompanied by Mars in a binary system. Orbital period of 12.5 x 29.22 days (365.25 days). All [T 16]
[WB 3]
V Moon -12.74 0.0024 0.0024 Moon of Earth. Orbital period of 1 x 29.22 days. Preface, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 23, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 [T 3][T 16]
[WB 4]
V Mercury -02.6-5.7 0.3-0.46 0.51-1.48 Junior moon of the Sun. Orbital period of 4 x 29.22 days (116.88 days). Preface, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 27, 28, Epilogue [T 17][T 18]
[T 16]
[WB 5]
V Venus -04.9 to -3.8 0.72 0.25-1 Senior moon of the Sun. Orbital period of 20 x 29.22 days (584.4 days). 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 20, 27 [T 19][T 20]
[T 16]
[WB 6]
V Mars -03.0-1.6 1.38-1.66 0.37-2.66 Binary companion of the Sun. Orbital period of 25 x 29.22 days (730.5 days). Preface, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 26, 27, 36, Epilogue [T 21][T 16]
[WB 7]
V Jupiter -02.94 to -1.6 5.19 0005.19 P-type planet. Orbital period of 150 x 29.22 days (4383 days). 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 20, 26, 27, 29, 36 [T 22][T 16]
[WB 8]
V Saturn -00.24-1.47 9.51 0009.51 P-type planet. Orbital period of 375 x 29.22 days (10,957.5 days). 2, 3, 6, 9, 13, 15, 29, 35, 36 [T 22]
[WB 9]
V Uranus 05.32-5.9 38.29 0038.29 P-type planet. Orbital period of 1050 x 29.22 days (30,681 days). 9, 13, 15, 29 [T 22]
[WB 10]
V Neptune 07.78-8.02 59.93 0059.93 P-type planet. Orbital period of 2062.5 x 29.22 days (60,266.25 days). 9, 13, 15, 29 [T 22]
[WB 11]
V Pluto 13.65-16.3 78.75 0078.75 P-type planet. Orbital period of 3100 x 29.22 days (90,582 days). 9, 15, 29 [T 22]
[WB 12]
V Phobos 11.8 1.38-1.66~ 0.37-2.66~ Senior moon of Mars. 3, 5 [T 23]
[WB 13]
V Deimos 12.89 1.38-1.66~ 0.37-2.66~ Junior moon of Mars. 3, 5 [T 23]
[WB 14]
V Ganymede 04.38-4.61 5.19~ 0005.19~ Largest Galilean moon of Jupiter. 3 [T 23]
[WB 15]
V Io 05.02 5.19~ 0005.19~ Innermost Galilean moon of Jupiter. 3, 26 [T 23]
[WB 16]
V Europa 05.29 5.19~ 0005.19~ Smallest Galilean moon of Jupiter. 3 [T 23]
[WB 17]
V Callisto 05.65 5.19~ 0005.19~ 2nd-largest Galilean moon of Jupiter. [WB 18]
V Titan 08.2-9.0 9.51~ 0009.51~ Largest moon of Saturn. [WB 19]
V Iapetus 10.2-11.9 9.51~ 0009.51~ 3rd-largest moon of Saturn. [WB 20]
V Rhea 10 9.51~ 0009.51~ 2nd-largest moon of Saturn. [WB 21]
V Tethys 10.2 9.51~ 0009.51~ 2nd-brightest moon of Saturn. [WB 22]
V Dione 10.4 9.51~ 0009.51~ 3rd of inner moons of Saturn. [WB 23]
V Enceladus 11.7 9.51~ 0009.51~ 6th-largest moon of Saturn. [WB 24]
V Mimas 12.9 9.51~ 0009.51~ Moon of Saturn. Smallest celestial body that is spherical, allegedly due to gravitation. [WB 25]
V Triton 13.47 59.93~ 0059.93~ Largest moon of Neptune. [WB 26]
V Titania 13.9 38.29~ 0038.29~ Largest moon of Uranus. [WB 27]
V Oberon 14.1 38.29~ 0038.29~ 2nd-largest moon of Uranus. [WB 28]
V Ariel 14.4 38.29~ 0038.29~ 4th-largest moon of Uranus. [WB 29]
V Umbriel 14.5 38.29~ 0038.29~ 3rd-largest moon of Uranus. [WB 30]
V Miranda 15.8 38.29~ 0038.29~ 5th-largest moon of Uranus. [WB 31]
V Main Asteroid Belt V 2-3 0002-3 Asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. 14 [T 24]
[WB 32]
V Kuiper Belt V 30-50 ? Kuiper object belt outside of orbit of Neptune. 14 [T 24]
[WB 33]
D Sirius -01.46 8.60 ± 0.04 0012.75 Brightest star in the night sky, binary system. 1, 3, 4, 6, 32, 33 [T 25]
[WB 34]
AN Vega(p) -00.02-0.07 25.04 ± 0.07 0037.15 5th-brightest star in the night sky. 5, 14, 19, 26, 36 [WB 35]
J Fomalhaut(1) 01.16 25.13 ± 0.09 0037.28 18th-brightest star in the night sky. Binary star system with the first confirmed exoplanet, Fomalhaut b, 2nd-brightest star with exoplanets, after Pollux. 14 [T 24]
[WB 36]
[WB 37]
J Deneb 01.25 1500-3227 2225-4787 19th brightest star in the night sky. Distance estimated between 1500 and 3227 ly. 35 [T 26]
[WB 38]
AS Alpha & Proxima Centauri (1) 01.33 4.37 0006.48 Binary/triple star system, closest to Earth. Exoplanet found around Proxima Centauri, more suspected. 1, 35, 36 [T 26][T 15]
[WB 39]
[WB 40]
[WB 41]
M Regulus 01.4 79.3 ± 0.7 0117.65 21st brightest star in the night sky. 4+ star system. Near ecliptic. 6 [T 4]
[WB 42]
AN Polaris 01.86-2.13 323–433 0479-642 North Star, binary system. Preface, 5, 8, 18, 19, 34, Epilogue [T 27]
[WB 43]
AN Gamma Draconis 02.23 154.3 ± 0.7 0229 Brightest star of Draco. London Zenith Star. Used by James Bradley for the supposed aberration of light. May have a companion. Epilogue [T 28]
[WB 44]
J Delta Capricorni 02.81 38.70 ± 0.09 0057.41 Binary system. 7 [T 29]
[WB 45]
D Tau Ceti (4) 03.5 11.905 ± 0.007 0017.66 Single star, first analysis showed 5 exoplanets. Subsequent research discarded 3 of them, but found 2 more. 14 [T 24]
[WB 46]
AN Thuban 03.65 303 ± 5 0449 PVP Pole Star over time. 19 [T 27]
[WB 47]
D Epsilon Eridani (p) 03.74 10.475 ± 0.003 0015.5 Single star, exoplanet and asteroid belt supposed. 14 [T 24]
[WB 48]
D Beta Pictoris 03.86 63.4 ± 0.1 0094 Single star, exoplanet found. 14 [T 24]
[WB 49]
J 61 Cygni (p) 05.2 11.41 ± 0.02 0016.9 Binary star system, first star (system) where parallax was measured by Bessel. Exoplanets claimed, not certain. 36 [T 15]
[WB 50]
AN V762 Cas 05.87 2764.1-14,825.6 4100-21,996 Farthest star visible with the naked eye at 14,825.61 ly (4545.45 Pc) (1997) or 2764.10 ly (847.46 Pc) (2007). 35 [T 26]
[8]
D 55 Cancri (5) 05.95 40.3 ± 0.4 0059.8 Binary star system, 5 exoplanets found, 55 Cancri c named Brahe. 14 [T 24]
[WB 51]
[WB 52]
J Barnard's Star 09.51 5.978 ± 0.002 0008.87 Wandering star, highest proper motion. Preface [T 30]
[WB 53]
D Canopus -00.74 310 ± 20 0460 2nd-brightest star in the night sky. [WB 54]
M Arcturus (p) -00.05 36.7 ± 0.2 0054.4 4th-brightest star in the night sky. [WB 55]
D Capella 00.03-0.16 42.919 ± 0.049 0063.6 6th-brightest star in the night sky, double binary star system. [WB 56]
D Rigel 00.05-0.18 860 ± 80 1276 7th-brightest star in the night sky, brightest of Orion, 3 to 5 star system. [WB 57]
D Procyon 00.34 11.46 ± 0.05 0017 8th-brightest star in the night sky, binary system. [WB 58]
D Betelgeuse 00.0-1.3 640 0949 9th-brightest star in the night sky, 2nd-brightest of Orion. [WB 59]
AS Achernar 00.40-0.46 139 ± 3 0206 10th-brightest star in the night sky, binary system. [WB 60]
AS Beta Centauri 00.61 390 ± 20 0578 11th-brightest star in the night sky. Triple star system. [WB 61]
J Altair 00.76 16.73 ± 0.05 0024.82 12th-brightest star in the night sky, breaking up? [WB 62]
AS Alpha Crucis 00.76 320 ± 20 0474 13th-brightest star in the night sky. Multiple star system. [WB 63]
D Aldebaran 00.75-0.95 65.3 ± 1.0 0096.88 14th-brightest star in the night sky. Likely hosting exoplanets. [WB 64]
M Antares 00.6-1.6 550~ 0816~ 15th-brightest star in the night sky. Likely largest known star. [WB 65]
M Spica 00.97-1.04 250 ± 10 0371 16th-brightest star in the night sky, binary system. [WB 66]
D Pollux (1) 01.14 33.78 ± 0.09 0050.11 17th-brightest star in the night sky. Brightest star with an exoplanet. [WB 67]
[WB 68]
AS Mimosa 01.23-1.31 280 ± 20 0415 20th-brightest star in the night sky, binary system. [WB 69]
D Bellatrix 01.59-1.64 250 ± 10 0371 25th-brightest star in the night sky. Right shoulder of Orion (seen from Northern hemisphere, the left shoulder is Betelgeuse). [WB 70]
S Pleiades 01.6 444
(avg)
0658
(avg)
Seven stars appearing close together in the constellation of Taurus. [WB 71]
AS Gamma Crucis 01.64 88.6 ± 0.4 0131.45 Single star. [WB 72]
D Alnilam 01.69 2000~ 2967~ Central star of Orion's Belt. Single star. [WB 73]
D Alnitak 01.77 1,260 ± 180 1869 Left star of Orion's Belt (seen from Northern hemisphere). Triple star system. [WB 74]
AN Alioth 01.77 82.6 ± 0.4 0122.5 31st-brightest star in the night sky. Leftmost and brightest star of the Big Dipper. [WB 75]
AN Dubhe 01.79 123 ± 2 0182.4 2nd-brightest star of the Big Dipper. Has a companion. [WB 76]
AN Alkaid 01.86 103.9 ± 0.8 0154.1 3rd-brightest star of the Big Dipper. Single star. [WB 77]
D Castor 01.93 51 ± 3 0075.6 Triple star system. [WB 78]
AN Mizar 02.04 82.9 ± 0.6 0123 4th-brightest star of the Big Dipper. Visual double star, part of quadruple system with Alcor. [WB 79]
D Saiph 02.09 650 ± 30 0964 Left foot of Orion (seen from Northern hemisphere, the right foot is Rigel). [WB 80]
M Denebola (p) 02.11 35.9 ± 0.2 0053.2 Single star, possibly variable, exoplanets suspected. [WB 81]
M Algol 02.12-3.39 90 ± 3 0133.5 Triple star system. [WB 82]
D Mintaka 02.23 691-1400 1025-2077 Right star of Orion's Belt (seen from Northern hemisphere). Multiple star system. The distance derived from the Hipparcos satellite parallax is 212 ± 30 pc (691 ± 97.8), while spectroscopic distances, comparisons to similar stars, and cluster membership all suggest a value more than double that (~1400 ly). This type of unreconcilable discrepancy is not unique to Mintaka and the reasons for it have yet to be clarified. [WB 83]
AN Merak 02.37 79.7 ± 0.3 0118.2 5th-brightest star of the Big Dipper. Single star. [WB 84]
AN Phecda 02.43 83.2 ± 0.8 0123.4 6th-brightest star of the Big Dipper. Astrometric binary. [WB 85]
AN Alderamin 02.51 49.05 ± 0.08 0072.77 Pole Star over time. [WB 86]
J Eta Boötis 02.68 37.2 ± 0.5 0055.1 Binary star. Since 1943, the spectrum of this star has served as one of the stable anchor points by which other stars are classified. [WB 87]
J Gamma Virginis 02.74 38.1 ± 0.3 0056.5 Binary star. As Gamma Virginis is close to the ecliptic, it can be occulted by the Moon and (extremely rarely) by planets. In June 2011, Saturn came within a quarter of a degree from Porrima. [WB 88]
D Beta Hydri (p) 02.80 24.33 ± 0.02 0036 Single star, possible exoplanets. [WB 89]
D Tabit (p) 03.16 26.32 ± 0.04 0039 Brightest star in the shield of Orion. Possibly a single star, possible exoplanets. Since 1943, the spectrum of this star has served as one of the stable anchor points by which other stars are classified. [WB 90]
AN Gamma Cephei (1) 03.21 44.9 ± 0.3 0066.6 Binary star with 1 exoplanet (Tadmor). [WB 91]
[WB 92]
AN Megrez 03.31 58.4 ± 0.3 0086.64 7th-brightest (dimmest) star of the Big Dipper. Two companions. [WB 93]
J Mu Herculis 03.41 27.11 ± 0.04 0040.2 Quadruple star system. Since 1943, the spectrum of this star has served as one of the stable anchor points by which other stars are classified. [WB 94]
D Eta Cassiopeiae 03.44 19.42 ± 0.06 0028.8 Binary star, first discovered by William Herschel in August 1779. [WB 95]
D Delta Eridani 03.54 29.49 ± 0.08 0043.7 Single star. [WB 96]
S Delta Pavonis 03.56 19.92 ± 0.02 0029.55 Single Sun-like star, the nearest solar analog that is not a member of a binary or multiple star system. [WB 97]
J Chi Draconis 03.57 26.3 ± 0.2 0039 Binary star. In 1898 this system was reported to be a spectroscopic binary system, with an orbital period of 280.55 days. [WB 98]
M Gamma Leporis (p) 03.58 29.12 ± 0.05 0043.2 Single star, candidate for exoplanet hunters. [WB 99]
J Beta Virginis (p) 03.60 35.65 ± 0.09 0052.9 Single star. It is 0.69 degrees north of the ecliptic, so it can be occulted by the Moon and (rarely) by planets. The next planetary occultation of Zavijava will take place on 11 August 2069, by Venus. [WB 100]
D Upsilon Andromedae (4) 04.09 44.25 ± 0.06 0065.65 Binary star with 4 exoplanets. [WB 101]
J 70 Ophiuchi (2) 04.12 16.58 ± 0.07 0024.5 Binary star. In 1855, William Stephen Jacob of the Madras Observatory claimed that the orbit of the binary showed an anomaly, and it was "highly probable" that there was a "planetary body in connection with this system". This is the first attempt to use radial velocity to detect an exoplanet, and the first based on astrometric evidence. [WB 102]
D 82 G. Eridani (3, 3 p) 04.25 19.71 ± 0.02 0029.24 High velocity Sun-like star with 3 confirmed and 3 possible exoplanets. [WB 103]
D 10 Tauri 04.29 45.5 ± 0.3 0067.5 Single star with debris disk identified. [WB 104]
D 40 Eridani 04.43 16.26 ± 0.02 0024.1 Triple star system, components discovered on January 31, 1783, by William Herschel. [WB 105]
J Tau Boötis (1) 04.50 50.9 ± 0.2 0075.52 Binary star with 1 exoplanet. [WB 106]
J Sigma Draconis (1 p) 04.67 18.77 ± 0.02 0027.8 Single star with unconfirmed possible exoplanet. [WB 107]
J Xi Boötis 04.70 21.89 ± 0.07 0032.4 Binary star. [WB 108]
J 61 Virginis (2, 1 p) 04.74 27.90 ± 0.05 0041.39 Star with 2 confirmed and 1 unconfirmed exoplanets. [WB 109]
S Epsilon Indi (1) 04.83 11.81 ± 0.01 0035 Triple star system with 1 exoplanet. [WB 110]
J 66 G. Centauri (1) 04.88 30.07 ± 0.06 0044.61 Binary star with 1 exoplanet. [WB 111]
AN Chalawan (1) 05.03 45.9 ± 0.2 0068 Yellow dwarf star with 1 exoplanet. [WB 112]
J 36 Ophiuchi 05.08 19.5 ± 0.1 0028.9 Triple star system. [WB 113]
J Cervantes (4) 05.12 50.6 ± 0.2 0075 Single star with 4 exoplanets. [WB 114]
S HD 176051(1) 05.22 48.5 ± 0.3 0071.9 Binary star with 1 exoplanet. [WB 115]
J 62 G. Scorpii (4) 05.38 41.7 ± 0.2 0061.8 Sun-like star with 1 exoplanet. [WB 116]
S 51 Pegasi (1) 05.49 50.9 ± 0.3 0075.52 Sun-like star with 1 exoplanet, 51 Pegasi b (officially named Dimidium, formerly unofficially dubbed Bellerophon), the first main-sequence star found to have an exoplanet orbiting it. [WB 117]
J Gliese 570 (p) 05.64 19.0 ± 0.1 0028.1 Multiple system of orange, two red and a brown dwarf, exoplanets claimed but later refuted. Parallax measurements by Hipparcos had a relatively large error as Earth-based parallax and orbit observations suggest that the two stars are actually part of a system with Gliese 570 A, and must actually lie at the same distance. [WB 118]
S Gliese 777 (2) 05.71 51.7 ± 0.3 0076.7 Binary star with 2 exoplanets. [WB 119]
S Gliese 785 (2) 05.73 29.06 ± 0.08 0043.11 Sun-like star with 2 exoplanets. [WB 120]
D Gliese 892 (5, 2 p) 05.74 21.35 ± 0.04 0031.67 Star with companion and 5 confirmed and 2 unconfirmed exoplanets. [WB 121]
J Nu2 Lupi (3) 05.78 48.3 ± 0.3 0071.66 Sun-like star with 3 exoplanets. [WB 122]
D 54 Piscium (1) 05.88 36.1 ± 0.1 0053.5 Yellow and brown dwarf binary star with 1 exoplanet. [WB 123]
J Gliese 667 (2) 05.91 23.2 ± 0.3 0034.42 Triple star system with 2 exoplanets. [WB 124]
D HD 38858 (1) 05.97 49.5 ± 0.3 0073.4 Sun-like star with 1 exoplanet. [WB 125]
M HD 69830 (3) 05.98 40.7 ± 0.2 0060.3 Yellow dwarf star with 3 exoplanets and an asteroid belt. [WB 126]
D Gliese 86 (2) 06.17 35.2 ± 0.1 0052.2 Binary star with 1 exoplanet. [WB 127]
M HD 40307 (6) 07.17 41.8 ± 0.3 0062 Single star with 6 exoplanets. [WB 128]
M HD 85512 (1) 07.66 36.4 ± 0.3 0054 Single star with 1 exoplanet. [WB 129]
S Gliese 832 (2) 08.66 16.16 ± 0.08 0023.97 Red dwarf with 2 exoplanets. [WB 130]
D Kapteyn's Star (2) 08.85 12.76 ± 0.05 0018.9 Faint red dwarf with 2 exoplanets. Closest halo star. [WB 131]
[WB 132]
J HD 113538 (2) 09.05 52 ± 1 0077.5 Single star with 2 exoplanets. [WB 133]
AN Gliese 687 (1) 09.15 14.77 ± 0.06 0021.91 Red dwarf with 1 exoplanet. [WB 134]
J Gliese 674 (1) 09.38 14.81 ± 0.10 0021.97 Red dwarf with 1 exoplanet. [WB 135]
J Gliese 649 (1) 09.62 33.8 ± 0.1 0050.1 Red dwarf with 1 exoplanet. [WB 136]
J DT Virginis (1) 09.72 38.1 ± 0.7 0056.5 Binary red dwarf system with 1 exoplanet. [WB 137]
J V1054 Ophiuchi (5) 09.74 21.05 ± 0.07 0031.22 5-star system, all red dwarfs. Closest quintuple system to Earth. [WB 138]
M Gliese 433 (2) 09.79 29.8 ± 0.1 0044.21 Red dwarf with 2 exoplanets. [WB 139]
D Luyten's Star (2) 09.9 12.20 ± 0.04 0018.1 Faint red dwarf with 2 exoplanets. [WB 140]
[WB 141]
D Gliese 176 (1) 09.95 30.7 ± 0.2 0045.54 Red dwarf with 1 exoplanet. [WB 142]
J Wolf 1061 (3) 10.07 14.04 ± 0.03 0020.83 Red dwarf with 3 exoplanets. [WB 143]
J GJ 625 (1) 10.17 21.3 ± 0.1 0031.6 Red dwarf with 1 exoplanet. [WB 144]
S TRAPPIST-1 (7) 10.29 39.6 ± 0.4 0058.75 Red dwarf with 7 exoplanets, all in orbit closer than Mercury to the Sun. [WB 145]
S Gliese 849 (2) 10.42 28.80 ± 0.08 0042.72 Red dwarf with 2 exoplanets. [WB 146]
J Gliese 581 (3, 2 p) 10.56 20.56 ± 0.05 0030.5 Red dwarf with 3 confirmed and 2 possible exoplanets. [WB 147]
M Gliese 436 (1) 10.67 31.80 ± 0.10 0047.1 Red dwarf with 1 exoplanet. [WB 148]
D Gliese 180 (2) 10.89 40.3 ± 1.0 0059.79 Red dwarf with 2 exoplanets. [WB 149]
M Ross 128 (1) 11.13 11.03 ± 0.02 0016.36 Faint red dwarf with exoplanet. [WB 150]
[WB 151]
J HIP 79431 (1) 11.33 47 ± 2 0069.7 Single star with 1 exoplanet. [WB 152]
AN HIP 57050 (1) 11.95 35.9 ± 0.2 0053.2 Red dwarf with 1 exoplanet. [WB 153]
D Gliese 179 (1) 11.96 40 ± 2 0059.3 Single star with 1 exoplanet. [WB 154]
M Gliese 317 (1, 1 p) 11.98 49.9 ± 0.4 0074 Red dwarf with 1 exoplanet confirmed and a second suspected. [WB 155]
D YZ Ceti (3, 1 p) 12.03-12.18 12.0 ± 0.4 0017.8 3 exoplanets confirmed, 4th suspected. [WB 156]
D LHS 1723 (2) 12.2 17.4 ± 0.1 0025.82 Faint red dwarf with 2 exoplanets. [WB 157]
J Gliese 1214 (1) 14.71 47.5 ± 0.4 0070.4 Red dwarf with 1 exoplanet. [WB 158]
AS Large Magellanic Cloud 00.9 163,000 ? The 3rd-closest galaxy to the Milky Way in the constellations of Dorado and Mensa. [WB 159]
S Andromeda Galaxy 03.44 2,540,000 ? The nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way in the constellation of Andromeda. [WB 160]
D Comet of 1472 ? ? ? Comet visible from Christmas day 1471 until March 1, 1472. The comet is notable as observed by 15th-century astronomers, during a time of rapid progress in planetary theory, shortly before the Copernican Revolution. Observed by Regiomontanus, who tried to estimate its distance from Earth, using parallax. [WB 161]
M Great Comet of 1556 ? ? ? Comet visible from February 1556 until March, studied by Cornelius Gemma, Paul Fabricius and Helisaeus Roeslin. [WB 162]
V Tycho's Supernova -04 ? ? Supernova occurring from November 2, 1572 until 1574, studied by Tycho Brahe and named after him. At peak apparent magnitude, the supernova was brighter than Jupiter. [9]
[WB 163]
D Great Comet of 1577 ? ? ? Comet visible from November 13, 1577 until January 26, 1578, studied by Tycho Brahe. [WB 164]
V Kepler's Supernova -02.25 to -2.5 ? ? Supernova occurring from October 9, 1604 until next autumn of 1605, studied by Johannes Kepler and named after him. He published De Stella nova in pede Serpentarii (1606) about it which led to a dispute with Lodovico delle Colombe, who observed the supernova first, and Helisaeus Roeslin. [WB 165]

See also

References

TYCHOS

Wikipedia

Celestial bodies in Wikipedia

  1. List of nearest bright stars
  2. Earth
  3. Sun
  4. Moon
  5. Mercury
  6. Venus
  7. Mars
  8. Jupiter
  9. Saturn
  10. Uranus
  11. Neptune
  12. Pluto
  13. Phobos
  14. Deimos
  15. Ganymede
  16. Io
  17. Europa
  18. Callisto
  19. Titan
  20. Iapetus
  21. Rhea
  22. Tethys
  23. Dione
  24. Enceladus
  25. Mimas
  26. Triton
  27. Titania
  28. Oberon
  29. Ariel
  30. Umbriel
  31. Miranda
  32. Main Asteroid Belt
  33. Kuiper Belt
  34. Sirius
  35. Vega
  36. Fomalhaut
  37. Fomalhaut b
  38. Deneb
  39. Alpha Centauri
  40. Proxima Centauri
  41. Proxima Centauri b
  42. Regulus
  43. Polaris
  44. Gamma Draconis
  45. Delta Capricorni
  46. Tau Ceti
  47. Thuban
  48. Epsilon Eridani
  49. Beta Pictoris
  50. 61 Cygni
  51. 55 Cancri
  52. 55 Cancri c
  53. Barnard's Star
  54. Canopus
  55. Arcturus
  56. Capella
  57. Rigel
  58. Procyon
  59. Betelgeuse
  60. Achernar
  61. Beta Centauri
  62. Altair
  63. Alpha Crucis
  64. Aldebaran
  65. Antares
  66. Spica
  67. Pollux
  68. Pollux b
  69. Mimosa
  70. Bellatrix
  71. Pleiades
  72. Gamma Crucis
  73. Alnilam
  74. Alnitak
  75. Alioth
  76. Dubhe
  77. Alkaid
  78. Castor
  79. Mizar
  80. Saiph
  81. Denebola
  82. Algol
  83. Mintaka
  84. Merak
  85. Phecda
  86. Alderamin
  87. Eta Boötis
  88. Gamma Virginis
  89. Beta Hydri
  90. Tabit
  91. Gamma Cephei
  92. Tadmor
  93. Megrez
  94. Mu Herculis
  95. Eta Cassiopeiae
  96. Delta Eridani
  97. Delta Pavonis
  98. Chi Draconis
  99. Gamma Leporis
  100. Beta Virginis
  101. Upsilon Andromedae
  102. 70 Ophiuchi
  103. 82 G. Eridani
  104. 10 Tauri
  105. 40 Eridani
  106. Tau Boötis
  107. Sigma Draconis
  108. Xi Boötis
  109. 61 Virginis
  110. Epsilon Indi
  111. 66 G. Centauri
  112. Chalawan
  113. 36 Ophiuchi
  114. Cervantes
  115. HD 176051
  116. 62 G. Scorpii
  117. 51 Pegasi
  118. Gliese 570
  119. Gliese 777
  120. Gliese 785
  121. Gliese 892
  122. Nu2 Lupi
  123. 54 Piscium
  124. Gliese 667
  125. HD 38858
  126. HD 69830
  127. Gliese 86
  128. HD 40307
  129. HD 85512
  130. Gliese 832
  131. Kapteyn's Star
  132. Kapteyn b
  133. HD 113538
  134. Gliese 687
  135. Gliese 674
  136. Gliese 649
  137. DT Virginis
  138. V1054 Ophiuchi
  139. Gliese 433
  140. Luyten's Star
  141. Luyten b
  142. Gliese 176
  143. Wolf 1061
  144. GJ 625
  145. TRAPPIST-1
  146. Gliese 849
  147. Gliese 581
  148. Gliese 436
  149. Gliese 180
  150. Ross 128
  151. Ross 128 b
  152. HIP 79431
  153. HIP 57050
  154. Gliese 179
  155. Gliese 317
  156. YZ Ceti
  157. LHS 1723
  158. Gliese 1214
  159. Large Magellanic Cloud
  160. Andromeda Galaxy
  161. Comet_of_1472
  162. Great Comet of 1556
  163. Tycho's Supernova
  164. Great Comet of 1577
  165. Kepler's Supernova

Researchers in Wikipedia

  1. Tycho Brahe
  2. Hipparchus
  3. Sosigenes of Alexandria
  4. Ptolemy
  5. Aztec calendar
  6. Maya astronomy
  7. Nilakantha Somayaji
  8. Longomontanus
  9. Nicolaus Copernicus
  10. Galileo Galilei
  11. Johannes Kepler
  12. Giovanni Cassini
  13. Giovanni Riccioli
  14. Cristoph Scheiner
  15. Isaac Newton
  16. Ole Roemer
  17. James Bradley
  18. Pathani Samanta
  19. Friedrich Bessel
  20. Simon Newcomb
  21. Rudolf Steiner
  22. Albert Einstein
  23. John Knight Fotheringham
  24. Robert Russell Newton
  25. Vittorio Goretti
  26. Theodor Landscheidt
  27. Howard Margolis
  28. Anaxagoras
  29. Aristotle
  30. Heraclides Pontius
  31. Theophrastus
  32. Eratosthenes
  33. Aristarchus of Samos
  34. Seleucus of Seleucia
  35. Macrobius
  36. Martianus Capella
  37. Aryabhata
  38. Al_Battani
  39. Azophi
  40. Alhazen
  41. Avicenna
  42. Avempace
  43. Averroes
  44. Al Shirazi
  45. Tusi
  46. Ulugh Beg
  47. Muisca astronomy
  48. Regiomontanus
  49. Taki
  50. Erasmus Reinhold
  51. Julius Caesar Scaliger
  52. Christian Wurstisen
  53. Thomas Digges
  54. Christoph Rothmann
  55. Valentin Naboth
  56. Paul Wittich
  57. Francesco Maurolico
  58. Nicolaus Reimers
  59. Christopher Clavius
  60. Giovanni Antonio Magini
  61. David Gans
  62. Johannes van Heeck
  63. Michael Maestlin
  64. Christoph Grienberger
  65. Odo van Maelcote (it)
  66. Odo van Maelcote (fr)
  67. Odo van Maelcote (de)
  68. Giuseppe Biancani
  69. Johannes Praetorius
  70. Helisaeus Roeslin
  71. Simon Marius
  72. David Fabricius
  73. Johannes Fabricius
  74. Christiaan Huygens
  75. Johannes Hevelius
  76. Robert Hooke
  77. Willebrord Snellius
  78. Edmond Halley
  79. Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr
  80. Charles Messier
  81. Anders Celsius
  82. Giuseppe Piazzi
  83. Barnaba Oriani
  84. Eise Eisinga
  85. Pierre-Simon Laplace
  86. William Herschel
  87. John Herschel
  88. James South
  89. Friedrich von Struve
  90. Angelo Secchi
  91. Urbain Le Verrier
  92. Johann Gottfried Galle
  93. William Lassell
  94. Asaph Hall
  95. Clyde Tombaugh
  96. Gerard Kuiper

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