TYCHOS[SS 1] is the name of a revised geo-heliocentric / or semi-tychonic model proposed by Simon Shack and first published on March 21, 2018[SS 2]. It challenges the currently accepted mainstream model of Copernican-Kepleran cosmology;[MSM 1][MSM 2] a heliocentric system as first suggested by Aristarchus of Samos,[MSM 3] based on gravity, as postulated by Isaac Newton.[MSM 4]. The TYCHOS submits that Earth is located at/ or near the barycentre of a classic binary system composed of the Sun and Mars. Earth moves at 1.6km/h (or ca. 1mph) around a clockwise orbit once every 25344 years (the so-called "precession of the equinoxes"). The TYCHOS model is in full accordance with all astronomical observations and is therefore an empirically-verifiable proposition of the geometry of our solar system.
Various geo-heliocentric models have been proposed in history:[SS 3]
- Macrobius (4th-5th century)[MSM 5]
- Martianus Capella (5th century),[MSM 6] as presented by Valentin Naboth (1523-1593)[MSM 7]
- Nilakantha Somayaji (1444-1544)[MSM 8]
- Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)[MSM 9]
- Longomontanus (1562-1647)[MSM 10]
For an introduction and background of the terms, celestial bodies and researches mentioned in TYCHOS, see TYCHOS glossary.
- 85% of our visible stars are part of a binary system (double/ triple /or multiple) - and ever more binaries are continuously being discovered
- the brightest star in the sky, Sirius,[MSM 11] is actually a binary star system composed of Sirius A and Sirius B, the two being proportionally quite similar to our Sun and Mars.
- our solar system is also a binary star system with Sun and Mars the two binary components orbiting around a common center, with Earth located at/or near their common barycenter
- Venus and Mercury are moons of the Sun, which explains why they are the only "planets" who lack moons and are tidally locked to their host, the Sun
- precession of the equinoxes,[MSM 12] is the PVP (Polaris-Vega-Polaris) orbit of Earth over the course of One Great Year (25,344 solar years)
- if there is no wobble of Earth, the Copernican model is invalidated. In fact, a number of modern-day researchers have demonstrated that the so-called "Lunisolar wobble" (a.k.a. "the 3d motion of Earth") simply cannot exist - since it is, among other things, contradicted by observation. The Copernican model is thus unable to account for the precession of the equinoxes
- The Michelson-Morley experiment,[MSM 13] tried to measure the velocity of Earth around the Sun (an expected 107,000 km/h). It is known as the "most failed experiment in scientific history" - as no such velocity was found. Michelson even thought of "the possibility that the solar system as a whole might have moved in the opposite direction of Earth", which is precisely what Earth does in the TYCHOS, as it moves clockwise around its PVP orbit
- motions of Mars: if Mars can face a given star X - and 546 days later it again faces star X, what is parallax then? The distance of the far-away stars cannot account for this observation, since Mars is far closer to Earth than any star. Official astronomy ignores this fact.
- ESI (Empiric Sidereal Interval), when Mars is in front of a particular star, long ESI is 707.5 days, 7 long ESI cycles are followed by 1 short ESI of 546 days. The latter cannot exist in the Copernican model whereas it will naturally occur (as illustrated geometrically in the TYCHOS) as a result of Mars's "spyrographic" orbital pattern
- in the TYCHOS the stars are approx. 42,633 times closer to Earth than in the Copernican model
- Earth's orbital speed is ca. 1.6km/h (or 1mph) and moves by only 7018 km in six months (or 14036 km annually)
- Alpha Centauri A and B,[MSM 14] our closest binary system with a third smaller object Proxima Centauri circling around them,[MSM 15] applying the 42,633 factor would place those at a distance of ca. 6.4 AU (roughly "halfway" between the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn - yet on a wholly different celestial plane)
- Shack accepts the official distances estimated for the bodies in our own Solar System, because it is based on Earth's diameter, a measurement which has been determined beyond reasonable doubt
- official catalogues of ESA (Hipparcos and Tycho-2)[MSM 16][MSM 17] contain the parallax data of about 2 million of stars; roughly ~25% of the stars exhibit positive parallaxes, ~25% negative parallaxes and ~50% show zero parallax
- imagining the Earth is a car and you drive anti-clockwise around the Sun (as theorized by the Copernican model): looking through the righthand window you will see the stars, at all times - whereas looking through your lefthand window you will see the Sun, at all times
- Therefore nearby stars will - at all times - appear to drift from left to right in relation to more distant stars (positive parallax). Hence,only positive parallax can exist in the Copernican model
- "negative" parallax implies that nearby stars appear to move from right to left in relation to distant stars - and thus, simply cannot exist in the Copernican model: it is a physical impossibility
- the negative parallaxes are officially explained away as being "observational errors" which, according to "expected statistical probabilities" (Bell curve) would cause 25% of the stellar parallaxes to be in error, due to the uncertainty of the optical resolution of telescopes. Why then would the 25% of positive parallaxes be any more trustworthy?
- The TYCHOS geometry (with Earth located at the center of our system) shows that the observed 25%/25%/50% distribution of positive/negative/ zero stellar parallaxes is precisely what would be expected
- Jupiter (1 Jovian orbit = 12 years) changes in 6 years from -23.3 to +23.3 degrees with respect to Earth's equator, exactly as the Sun does in 6 months. In the Copernican model however, Jupiter's orbit is thought to be inclined by only 1.3° with respect to our orbital plane: how then could its declination possibly fluctuate by 46.6°?
- who have picked up before on the many inconsistencies in the Copernican model?
- the Maya actually did with the synodic period of Venus and the ESI cycles of Mars
- the greatest Indian astronomer, Pathani Samantha, reached the same conclusions as Tycho Brahe - yet also failed to envisage that Earth must logically have an orbit (both imagined Earth as an orbitless, immobile body)
Table of Contents
Preface (free access)
Foreword — Some basic intellectual problems with the Copernican model (free access)
Chapter 1 — About Binary Star Systems
Chapter 2 — A brief look into the past regarding the Sun-Mars relationship
Chapter 3 — About our Sun-Mars binary system
Chapter 4 — Sirius A and B — “Living proof” in support of the TYCHOS model
Chapter 5 — Introducing the TYCHOS model (free access)
Chapter 6 — Mars, the “Key” to our system
Chapter 7 — The Copernican model is geometrically impossible
Chapter 8 — About Earth’s alleged “Axial Tilt”
Chapter 9 — The apparent retrograde motions of our “P-Type” planets
Chapter 10 — Mercury — the Sun’s junior moon
Chapter 11 — Venus — the Sun’s senior moon
Chapter 12 — The Sun’s mysterious 6 or 7 degree tilt
Chapter 13 — The Sun’s 79-Year cycle
Chapter 14 — Our Asteroid belts — tangible evidence of our Sun-Mars binary system
Chapter 15 — Our orbitally-resonant system “regulated” by our Moon
Chapter 16 — Computing the 25344-year “Great Year” in the TYCHOS
Chapter 17 — Our Cosmic Clockwork and the “16 factor”
Chapter 18 — Requiem for the “Lunisolar Wobble” theory
Chapter 19 — Earth’s Polaris-Vega-Polaris (PVP) orbit
Chapter 20 — Verifying Earth’s proposed orbital diameter
Chapter 21 — The TYCHOS Planetarium — or “Tychosium” (free access)
Chapter 22 — Earth’s 1 mph motion explains the “Equinoctial Precession”
Chapter 23 — The “Solar Day” versus the “Sidereal Day”
Chapter 24 — The “Solar Year” versus the “Sidereal Year”
Chapter 25 — The “geospatial” motives for the existence of our “Leap Day”
Chapter 26 — The Analemma and the Equation of Time
Chapter 27 — About our Moon and what it tells us
Chapter 28 — The Moon-Mercury Synchronicity
Chapter 29 — Earth’s 1 mph motion explains all of our “Outer” Planets’ parallaxes
Chapter 30 — Understanding the “Great Year” (of 25344 solar years)
Chapter 31 — The Gregorian Calendar and the implications of its current year count
Chapter 32 — The TYCHOS Great Year (TGY) — 25344 solar years of 365.22057 days
Chapter 33 — The Heliacal rising of Sirius
Chapter 34 — The stellar sophistry known as the “Aberration of Light”
Chapter 35 — The Question of Star Distances
Chapter 36 — The Mystery of Negative Stellar Parallax
Epilogue — The Copernican System’s many “confirmation flops” — a brief historical memento
Appendix I — Table of Acronyms, Terms and Constants
Appendix II — Miscellaneous data for bodies in the TYCHOS system
Appendix III — Bibliography
The TYCHOS – our Geoaxial Binary System
Introduction for the Online Edition
The TYCHOS book is the result of almost half a decade of steady research into mostly non-Copernican astronomical literature, data and teachings. It all started as a personal quest to probe a number of issues and incongruities which, in my mind, afflicted Copernicus’ famed (and almost universally-accepted) heliocentric theory.
As I gradually came to realize that the Copernican / Keplerian model presented truly insurmountable problems as to its proposed physics and geometry, I decided to put to the test, in methodical fashion, what was once its most formidable adversary, namely the geo-heliocentric Tychonic model devised by the great observational astronomer Tycho Brahe. In short, the essential soundness of Tycho’s original model led me to envision and formulate the missing pieces of his ingenious (yet incomplete) configuration of our “solar system”.
The TYCHOS book expounds in simple narrative style – and with the visual support of more than 100 original illustrations – my revised design of Brahe’s system which, in absence of any other working model, should be ideally implemented in all branches of astronomy and astrophysics. This, because the TYCHOS is today the only existing model of our “solar system” which agrees – by and large – with the vast body of empirical astronomical observations aquired and documented by humankind throughout the centuries. In any event, as clearly demonstrated in my book, the Copernican model is fundamentally flawed – and needs to be definitively discarded.
Listed below is the table of contents of the book. The Preface, Foreword and Chapter 5 (“Introducing the TYCHOS model”), as well as the interactive Tychosium 2-D are freely accessible. To access the full book and the extensive Tychosium 3-D, please register to Tychos.info for a small access fee. If you prefer, please purchase the complete book in physical form.
Thank you – and enjoy your newfound cosmic perspective. Consider it, if you will, as a boon empowering your intellectual awareness during your life on this planet. It may well take many years (or decades?) before the TYCHOS model will be acknowledged, discussed, let alone accepted by this world’s scientific community. However, I trust that the plain soundness of its principles will ultimately shine through.
May reason prevail.
— Simon Shack
This is the first part of the Preface of the book:[SS 6]
The TYCHOS is my proposed cosmic model. It is based on, inspired by and built around both modern and time-honored astronomical observations. In particular, my work has relied and expanded upon a number of lesser-known, overlooked and/or neglected teachings from the 1500’s to the 1800’s (as well as from antiquity). I dedicate this study to a few brilliant astronomers whose work has been passed over in favor of the so-called “Copernican Revolution”. These early insightful architects who laid the groundwork for what should be our current model for the solar system include Nilakantha Somayaji (author of the Tantrasangraha, 1501), Samanta Candrasekhara Simha – (a.k.a. Pathani Samanta, 1835-1904), the ancient Mayan / Aztec / Sumerian / Greek / Egyptian (et al) astronomers and, of course, Tycho Brahe (along with his trusty helper Longomontanus) whose impeccable observational data and tables still stand today as the most exacting ever made. In spite of Brahe’s rigorous and unchallenged documentation, his own model of the solar system was ultimately flipped on its head by his assistant, the famous Johannes Kepler. Kepler used his master’s observations in his laborious attempts to validate his diametrically opposed Copernican model. As only a few people will know, Kepler was ultimately (in 1988) exposed for having falsified Brahe’s all-important observational data (pertaining to Mars) so as to make them agree with his heliocentric thesis. His legacy is therefore eminently questionable; Brahe had specifically entrusted him with resolving the bewildering behavior of this particular celestial body, and Kepler’s laws of planetary motion were almost exclusively (mathematically) derived from his relentless “war on Mars” (as he liked to call it). Just why the Mars data presented such exceptional difficulties should become self-evident in the following pages.
I trust that any earnest astronomer will concede that the currently-accepted Copernican model is by no means flawless. It is afflicted by a number of still unresolved anomalies and incongruities. The persistence of several longstanding enigmas are readily admitted throughout (the more honest and candid sort of) astronomy literature. It is thus a widely-diffused, popular misconception that the Copernican model has provided mankind with the most indisputable interpretation of the formidable wealth of astronomical observations gathered throughout human history: as we shall see, the Copernican model is not only disputable – it is outright impossible.
In short, the TYCHOS provides the “missing pieces” which prevented Tycho Brahe from completing the puzzle of his “geo-heliocentric” system, in spite of the basic soundness of its geometric design. The TYCHOS model, while stopping far short of proposing a TOE (“Theory of Everything”), submits nonetheless what may be the most exacting, logical and intuitively sound geometric configuration of our local cosmos ever devised. As I discovered, following the reason of the data itself resolves a series of cosmological paradoxes that falsify the currently-adopted Copernican theory of our universe. It is an unfortunate characteristic of their present proponents to be recalcitrant towards and dismissive of data that they’ve failed to incorporate into a holistic self-consistency.
To ease explanations, I have done my best to employ simple graphics. I have also strived to use the simplest possible maths at all times, so as to make this text accessible to the widest possible readership range, including myself: I have always found complex equations both tedious and laborious. Fortunately, the core principles of the TYCHOS model can be expressed and outlined with a bare minimum of computations — all in the good tradition of Tycho Brahe’s very own philosophy.
Part of the Foreword:[SS 7]
Foreword — Some basic intellectual problems with the Copernican model
It can hardly be denied that the Copernican model is marred by a number of problems which, objectively speaking, challenge the limits of our human senses and perceptions. To my mind, there is nothing “intuitive” about the Copernican theory. Even if you disagree, I think it is safe to say that the current, widespread acceptance of it relies on the faith that most people have conferred to those prominent scientists who, about four centuries ago, decided for everyone of us that it was not only a credible theory of our universe — but that it was, indeed, the definitive one. Paradoxically, the so-called “Copernican Revolution” was hailed as the “triumph of the scientific method over religious dogma”. Yet, when challenged by the likes of Tycho Brahe about the absurd distances and titanic sizes of the stars that the novel Copernican model’s tenets implied, the proponents of the same invoked the “omnipotence of God”.
It is commonly thought (and taught) that the “Copernican Revolution marked the end of religious bigotry”. Well, nothing is further from the truth; if you had been questioning the Copernican model back then, you might have been called a person “of the vulgar sort” (since, according to Copernicans, you were therefore questioning God’s divine omnipotence!)
Chapter 5 - Introducing the TYCHOS model:[SS 8]
The TYCHOS system, it should be noted, is nothing but a natural evolution of the semi-Tychonic system, and is fully consistent with the unequaled observational accuracy of the same. However, the TYCHOS provides what one may call the “missing pieces of the puzzle” to the extraordinary work of Tycho Brahe and Longomontanus. Alas, their work was annihilated by the emergence of the Copernican heliocentric theory, which for unfathomable reasons prevailed – in spite of its numerous problems and aberrations. As we shall see, these problems stem from a distinctly unphysical nature. It is a poorly-known fact that the Copernican theory was by no means immediately embraced as a self-evident truth. It was strongly (and justly) rejected for several decades by the wider scientific community due the many leaps of logic that its core premises demanded. One of the most formidable mental leaps required in order to accept the Copernican theory was, of course, the unthinkable dimensions and distances that the stars would have in relation to our system.
Tychosium 2D:[SS 9]
The Tychosium is a bi-dimensional overhead view (as seen from above Earth’s North Pole) of our Sun-Mars ‘geoaxial’ binary system. For graphic clarity and convenience, the solstice of June 21, 2000 CE (Common Era) was chosen to represent “year 0” in the Tychosium. On that date, the Sun was at “12 o’clock” and at the highest point (+23°.26’) of its inclined orbit — while Mars and Venus both happened to be aligned in superior conjunction.
Tychosium 3D: First demo of Tychosium 3D was released on April 12, 2018 by patrix.[SS 10]
- Wikipedia - Copernican heliocentrism
- Wikipedia - Kepler's laws of planetary motion
- Wikipedia - Aristarchus of Samos
- Wikipedia - Newton's law of universal gravitation
- Wikipedia - Macrobius
- Wikipedia - Martianus Capella
- Wikipedia - Valentin Naboth
- Wikipedia - Nilakantha Somayaji
- Wikipedia - Tycho Brahe
- Wikipedia - Longomontanus
- Wikipedia - Sirius
- Wikipedia - Axial precession
- Wikipedia - Michelson-Morley experiment
- Wikipedia - Alpha Centauri
- Wikipedia - Proxima Centauri
- Wikipedia - Hipparcos
- Wikipedia - Tycho-2 Catalog
- 1988 - Donahue, W.H. - Kepler's Fabricated Figures - Covering up the Mess in the New Astronomy - Journal for the History of Astronomy, Vol.19, No.4, pp. 217-237
- 2013 - Popov - 10 - Newtonian-Machian analysis of the neo-Tychonian model of planetary motions
- 1977 - Varshni - 06 - The red shift hypothesis for quasars - is the Earth the center of the universe