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This page contains naturally occurring elements and questionable man-made, non-observed or otherwise suspicious ones.



Naturally occurring elements

See also War For Resources

Rare Earth Elements - REE

  • In practice
    • 90% of REE production is from China[R 1]


See also FAC 615

41 - Nb - Niobium

73 - Ta - Tantalum

Group 3 elements

21 - Sc - Scandium

39 - Y - Yttrium


57 - La - Lanthanum

58 - Ce - Cerium

59 - Pr - Praseodymium

60 - Nd - Neodymium

61 - Pm - Promethium

See Promethium

62 - Sm - Samarium

63 - Eu - Europium

64 - Gd - Gadolinium

65 - Tb - Terbium

66 - Dy - Dysprosium

67 - Ho - Holmium

68 - Er - Erbium

69 - Tm - Thulium

70 - Yb - Ytterbium

71 - Lu - Lutetium


37 - Rb - Rubidium

40 - Zr - Zirconium

44 - Ru - Ruthenium

45 - Rh - Rhodium

46 - Pd - Palladium

49 - In - Indium

72 - Hf - Hafnium

73 - Ta - Tantalum

74 - W - Tungsten

75 - Re - Rhenium

"Natural rhenium in the crust was found for the first time in wolframites of a rare earth deposit in the Trans-Baikal region [Rafal’son and Sorokin, 1976]. No other elements, including sulfur, were discovered. Afterward,natural rhenium particles of different morphologies were found in samples of lunar ground: irregularly shaped dense particles from """the Mare Fecunditatis and spheroidal particles from the Mare Crisium""". Their size is less than 10 µm and their exhalation origin has been supposed [Bogatikov et al., 2004; Mokhov et al., 2007].Natural rhenium of extraterrestrial objects was found in nickel-iron and silicates of the Allende meteorite[Goresey et al., 1977]. This exhausts the available information on findings of natural rhenium."

  • And then they present a PATHETIC "image" of Rhenium. Without scale, so non-scientific/academic whatsoever, with the caption:

"Image of natural rhenium particle in secondary electrons( × 3000) [no idea what this means?]"

76 - Os - Osmium

77 - Ir - Iridium

81 - Tl - Thallium

83 - Bi - Bismuth

84 - Po - Polonium

89 - Ac - Actinium

90 - Th - Thorium

91 - Pa - Proactinium

92 - U - Uranium

Natural resources



  • Located on Gotland, Sweden; most prolific element location on Earth
  • Type locality of:
  1. 39 - Y - Yttrium[T 10]
  2. 64 - Gd - Gadolinium[T 10]
  3. 65 - Tb - Teribium[T 10]
  4. 67 - Ho - Holmium[T 10]
  5. 68 - Er - Erbium[T 10]
  6. 70 - Yb - Ytterbium[T 10]



See also Psyops in Mali

  • REE-bearing carbonatite, hosted in nepheline syenite, ijolite, phonolite, pyroxenite, and fenite.

Burkina Faso

See also FAC 610 and Psyops in Burkina Faso

"Industrial Uses: Copper ore"

"Sphalerite, also known as blende or zinc blende, is the major ore of zinc. When pure (with little or no iron) it forms clear crystals with colours ranging from pale yellow (known as Cleiophane) to orange and red shades (known as Ruby Blende), but as iron content increases it forms dark, opaque metallic crystals (known as Marmatite).

Very rare green crystals owe their colour to trace amounts of Co (Henn & Hofmann, 1985; Rager et al., 1996).

Sphalerite may also contain considerable Mn, grading into alabandite. Samples containing up to 0.36 apfu (atoms per formula unit) Mn (21.4 wt.% MnO) have been described by Hurai & Huraiová (2011)."

"An active gold mine operated by Cluff Gold in the Boromo greenstone belt of Burkina Faso. Gold mineralization is hosted in narrow shear zones that are orientated parallel to the regional structural grain and contain thick quartz veins whose brecciated margins host the highest grades (Cluff Gold)."

"A fairly big artisanal gold digging site which is intermittently worked for gold since the late 1980s. At least two subvertical auriferous quartz veins trending N35 to N50 are hosted by Birimian granitoids."

"African Plate Tectonic Plate West Africa UN Subregion [???]"

"A gold mine opened in 2005."

"Gold mine.

Straddles the border between the provinces Oudalan and Séno.

Located 42 km east of the nearest large town and the provincial capital of Oudalan, Gorom-Gorom."

"A lateritic manganese ore deposit, among the cryptomelane-richest in the world.

19 Mt at 52% Mn.

Production of the open-pit mine started in 1994 but was suspended due to high transport costs."

"Visually indistinguishable from hollandite and several other manganese oxide minerals."

"Named in honor of Sir Thomas Henry Holland (22 November 1868, Helston, Cornwall, England – 15 May 1947, Surbiton, London), geologist and educational administrator. He was Director of the Geological Survey of India. He also held administrative positions at the Imperial College London and the University of Edinburgh."

"Named for LITHIum and the Greek phoros, for 'to bear'."

"The Kiaka mine is one of the largest gold mines in Burkina Faso. The mine is located in the center of the country in Zoundwéogo Province. The mine has estimated reserves of 5 million oz of gold.[Wikipedia]"

"The Kiaka gold deposit is a major resource in West Africa, with measured and indicated resources of 124 Mt at 1.09 g/t Au (3.9 Moz) and inferred resources of 27 Mt at 0.83 g/t Au (0.8 Moz). Located within the Manga-Fada N'Gourma greenstone and plutonic belt in south of the Burkina Faso, the deposit is hosted by a metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary sequence of lithic-, quartz-biotite metagreywackes, aluminosilicate-bearing metapelites and garnet-orthopyroxene-bearing schists and volcanic units. Structural observations indicate four local deformation events: DK1, DK2 and DK3 and DK4.

Respectively, these events are linked to regional D1 E-W compression, D2 NW-SE compression and lastly, D3- and D4-related reactivations along D2 shear zones. The S2 foliation and D2 shear zones are developed during lower amphibolite facies metamorphism whereas retrogression occurs during D3-4 reactivations along these shear zones at upper greenschist facies conditions.

The emplacement of a dioritic intrusion, dated at 2140 ± 7 Ma (Concordia U-Pb age on magmatic zircon), is interpreted to be contemporaneous with sinistral displacement along mineralized, NE-trending D2 shear zones. The intersection of these shears zones and the Markoye shear zone (dextral-reverse D1 and sinistral-reverse D2 reactivations) controlled the final geometry of the host rocks and the ore zones. Four subparallel elongated ore bodies are mainly hosted within D2-related shear zones and some are developed in an apparent axial plane of a F2 isoclinal fold.

Detailed petrographic studies have identified two main types of hydrothermal alteration associated with two stages of gold mineralization. The stage (1) corresponds to replacement zones with biotite and clinozoisite during the D2 event associated with pyrrhotite ± pyrite, chalcopyrite (disseminated gold stage). The stage (2) occurs during reactivations of the D2-related auriferous shear zones (vein stage) and is characterized by diopside ± actinolite D3 veins and veinlets and D4 pervasive muscovite, ± chlorite, ± calcite in quartz-carbonate vein selvages and associated with pyrrhotiteþarsenopyrite±electrum, ±native gold and tellurobismuthite.

The latter stage (2) could be divided into two sub-stages based on mineralogy and crosscutting relationship. A weighted average Re-Os pyrrhotite age at 2157 ± 24 Ma (Re-Os age based on 3 replicates) constraints the timing of the disseminated gold stage and represents the first absolute age for gold mineralization in the Manga Fada N'Gourma area. The timing of gold at Kiaka may be also coeval with one of the two lode gold event at ~ ca. 2.16e2.15 Ga and occurred concomitant with tectono-thermal activity during Eo-Eburnean orogeny."

Tsumeb, Namibia


Below Uranium

61 - Pm - Promethium

"Promethium is a chemical element with the symbol Pm and atomic number 61. All of its isotopes are radioactive; it is extremely rare, with only about 500–600 grams naturally occurring in Earth's crust at any given time. Promethium is one of only two radioactive elements that are followed in the periodic table by elements with stable forms, the other being technetium. Chemically, promethium is a lanthanide. Promethium shows only one stable oxidation state of +3.

In 1902 Bohuslav Brauner suggested that there was a then-unknown element with properties intermediate between those of the known elements neodymium (60) and samarium (62); this was confirmed in 1914 by Henry Moseley, who, having measured the atomic numbers of all the elements then known, found that atomic number 61 was missing. In 1926, two groups (one Italian and one American) claimed to have isolated a sample of element 61; both "discoveries" were soon proven to be false. In 1938, during a nuclear experiment conducted at Ohio State University, a few radioactive nuclides were produced that certainly were not radioisotopes of neodymium or samarium, but there was a lack of chemical proof that element 61 was produced, and the discovery was not generally recognized. Promethium was first produced and characterized at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1945 by the separation and analysis of the fission products of uranium fuel irradiated in a graphite reactor. The discoverers proposed the name "prometheum" (the spelling was subsequently changed), derived from Prometheus, the Titan in Greek mythology who stole fire from Mount Olympus and brought it down to humans, to symbolize "both the daring and the possible misuse of mankind's intellect". However, a sample of the metal was made only in 1963.

There are two possible sources for natural promethium: rare decays of natural europium-151 (producing promethium-147) and uranium (various isotopes). Practical applications exist only for chemical compounds of promethium-147, which are used in luminous paint, atomic batteries and thickness-measurement devices, even though promethium-145 is the most stable promethium isotope. Because natural promethium is exceedingly scarce, it is typically synthesized by bombarding uranium-235 (enriched uranium) with thermal neutrons to produce promethium-147 as a fission product."

"In 1934, Willard Libby reported that he had found weak beta activity in pure neodymium, which was attributed to a half-life over 1012 years. Almost 20 years later, it was claimed that the element occurs in natural neodymium in equilibrium in quantities below 10−20 grams of promethium per one gram of neodymium. However, these observations were disproved by newer investigations, because for all seven naturally occurring neodymium isotopes, any single beta decays (which can produce promethium isotopes) are forbidden by energy conservation. In particular, careful measurements of atomic masses show that the mass difference 150Nd-150Pm is negative (−87 keV), which absolutely prevents the single beta decay of 150Nd to 150Pm. In 1965 Olavi Erämetsä separated out traces of 145Pm from a rare earth concentrate purified from apatite, resulting in an upper limit of 10^−21 for the abundance of promethium in nature; this may have been produced by the natural nuclear fission [??] of uranium, or by cosmic ray spallation of 146Nd."

81 - At - Astatine

"Astatine is a radioactive chemical element with the symbol At and atomic number 85. It is the rarest naturally occurring element in the Earth's crust, occurring only as the decay product of various heavier elements. All of astatine's isotopes are short-lived; the most stable is astatine-210, with a half-life of 8.1 hours. A sample of the pure element has never been assembled, because any macroscopic specimen would be immediately vaporized by the heat of its own radioactivity.

The bulk properties of astatine are not known with any certainty. Many of them have been estimated based on the element's position on the periodic table as a heavier analog of iodine, and a member of the halogens (the group of elements including fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine). Astatine is likely to have a dark or lustrous appearance and may be a semiconductor or possibly a metal; it probably has a higher melting point than that of iodine. Chemically, several anionic species of astatine are known and most of its compounds resemble those of iodine. It also shows some metallic behavior, including being able to form a stable monatomic cation in aqueous solution (unlike the lighter halogens).

The first synthesis of the element was in 1940 by Dale R. Corson, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie, and Emilio G. Segrè at the University of California, Berkeley, who named it from the Greek astatos (ἄστατος), meaning "unstable". Four isotopes of astatine were subsequently found to be naturally occurring, although much less than one gram is present at any given time in the Earth's crust. Neither the most stable isotope astatine-210, nor the medically useful astatine-211, occur naturally; they can only be produced synthetically, usually by bombarding bismuth-209 with alpha particles."

"Appearance: unknown, probably metallic"

"Astatine is an extremely radioactive element; all its isotopes have short half-lives of 8.1 hours or less, decaying into other astatine isotopes, bismuth, polonium or radon. Most of its isotopes are very unstable with half-lives of one second or less. Of the first 101 elements in the periodic table, only francium is less stable, and all the astatine isotopes more stable than francium are in any case synthetic and do not occur in nature. The bulk properties of astatine are not known with any certainty. Research is limited by its short half-life, which prevents the creation of weighable quantities. A visible piece of astatine would immediately vaporize itself because of the heat generated by its intense radioactivity. It remains to be seen if, with sufficient cooling, a macroscopic quantity of astatine could be deposited as a thin film. Astatine is usually classified as either a nonmetal or a metalloid; metal formation has also been predicted."

"In 1940, the Swiss chemist Walter Minder announced the discovery of element 85 as the beta decay product of radium A (polonium-218), choosing the name "helvetium" (from Helvetia, the Latin name of Switzerland). Karlik and Bernert were unsuccessful in reproducing his experiments, and subsequently attributed Minder's results to contamination of his radon stream (radon-222 is the parent isotope of polonium-218). In 1942, Minder, in collaboration with the English scientist Alice Leigh-Smith, announced the discovery of another isotope of element 85, presumed to be the product of thorium A (polonium-216) beta decay. They named this substance "anglo-helvetium", but Karlik and Bernert were again unable to reproduce these results.

Later in 1940, Dale R. Corson, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie, and Emilio Segrè isolated the element at the University of California, Berkeley. Instead of searching for the element in nature, the scientists created it by bombarding bismuth-209 with alpha particles in a cyclotron (particle accelerator) to produce, after emission of two neutrons, astatine-211. The discoverers, however, did not immediately suggest a name for the element. The reason for this was that at the time, an element created synthetically in "invisible quantities" that had not yet discovered in nature was not seen as a completely valid one; in addition, chemists were reluctant to recognize radioactive isotopes as legitimately as stable ones. In 1943, astatine was found as a product of two naturally occurring decay chains by Berta Karlik and Traude Bernert, first in the so-called uranium series, and then in the actinium series.

(Since then, astatine was also found in a third decay chain, the neptunium series.) Friedrich Paneth in 1946 called to finally recognize synthetic elements, quoting, among other reasons, recent confirmation of their natural occurrence, and proposed that the discoverers of the newly discovered unnamed elements name these elements. In early 1947, Nature published the discoverers' suggestions; a letter from Corson, MacKenzie, and Segrè suggested the name "astatine" coming from the Greek astatos (αστατος) meaning "unstable", because of its propensity for radioactive decay, with the ending "-ine", found in the names of the four previously discovered halogens. The name was also chosen to continue the tradition of the four stable halogens, where the name referred to a property of the element.

Corson and his colleagues classified astatine as a metal on the basis of its analytical chemistry. Subsequent investigators reported iodine-like, cationic, or amphoteric behavior. In a 2003 retrospective, Corson wrote that "some of the properties [of astatine] are similar to iodine … it also exhibits metallic properties, more like its metallic neighbors Po and Bi."

"Astatine was first produced by bombarding bismuth-209 with energetic alpha particles, and this is still the major route used to create the relatively long-lived isotopes astatine-209 through astatine-211. Astatine is only produced in minuscule quantities, with modern techniques allowing production runs of up to 6.6 giga becquerels (about 86 nanograms or 2.47 × 10^14 atoms). Synthesis of greater quantities of astatine using this method is constrained by the limited availability of suitable cyclotrons and the prospect of melting the target.

Solvent radiolysis due to the cumulative effect of astatine decay is a related problem. With cryogenic technology, microgram quantities of astatine might be able to be generated via proton irradiation of thorium or uranium to yield radon-211, in turn decaying to astatine-211. Contamination with astatine-210 is expected to be a drawback of this method.

The most important isotope is astatine-211, the only one in commercial use. To produce the bismuth target, the metal is sputtered onto a gold, copper, or aluminium surface at 50 to 100 milligrams per square centimeter. Bismuth oxide can be used instead; this is forcibly fused with a copper plate. The target is kept under a chemically neutral nitrogen atmosphere, and is cooled with water to prevent premature astatine vaporization.

In a particle accelerator, such as a cyclotron, alpha particles are collided with the bismuth. Even though only one bismuth isotope is used (bismuth-209), the reaction may occur in three possible ways, producing astatine-209, astatine-210, or astatine-211. In order to eliminate undesired nuclides, the maximum energy of the particle accelerator is set to a value (optimally 29.17 MeV) above that for the reaction producing astatine-211 (to produce the desired isotope) and below the one producing astatine-210 (to avoid producing other astatine isotopes)."

" "

" "

43 - Tc - Technetium

87 - Fr - Francium

Artificial elements

93 - Np - Neptunium

108 - Hs - Hassium

112 - Cn - Copernicium







External links




Radiogenic heat production