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UNrealYesterday at 5:22 PM

Van Allen’s belt look a bit like a Bee

napoleon wilsonYesterday at 5:32 PM

Image result for einsteins discoveries Albert Einstein had many discoveries as a scientist, but is most known for his Theory of Relativity. This theory changed much in the way scientists look at the world and set the foundation for many modern inventions, including the nuclear bomb and nuclear energy. One equation from the theory is E=mc2.…

smjYesterday at 6:18 PM…

Science | AAAS

Here’s the first person to spot those gravitational waves

The discovery was thrilling—but it didn’t go according to plan

thats van allen in the middle……


Jeff Quitney

Explorer 1, First US Satellite: “Army Satellites” 1958 US Army “The Big Picture” TV-397…

John Desmond Bernal

John Desmond Bernal FRS (; 10 May 1901 – 15 September 1971) was a scientist who pioneered the use of X-ray crystallography in molecular biology. He published extensively on the history of science. In addition, Bernal was a political supporter o…

kepler kindve invented crystallography aswell

The German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) marveled when a snowflake landed on his coat showing its perfect six-cornered symmetry. In 1611 Kepler wrote ”Six-cornered Snowflake” (Latin title ”Strena Seu de Nive Sexangula”) the first mathematical description of crystals. In this essay, the first work on the problem of crystal structure, Kepler asks: Why do single snowflakes, before they become entangled with other snowflakes, always fall with six corners? Why do snowflakes not fall with five corners or with seven? Despite its modest size, Kepler’s essay is remarkably rich in ideas. One of his major discoveries was the geometry of the packing of spheres (the well known principle of closest packing in modern structural crystallography). He dealt with the densest cubical packing, and although he was not aware of the densest hexagonal packing, Kepler described two less dense packings for spheres, the hexagonal and the simple cubic. Moreover, starting from the spherical packings, Kepler drew conclusions about the parallelohedra, the convex polyhedra which can fill space in a regular manner, anticipating the conclusions of R.J. Haüy (1784) and E.S. Fedorov (1885). Kepler’s work contains indirect pointers to the Law of Constant Angles for a six-sided snow crystal. Thus one can consider Kepler as a forerunner of the discoverers of this law (N. Steno, 1669; M.W. Lomonosov, 1749; Romé de l’Isle, 1783).

napoleon wilsonYesterday at 6:42 PM……

smjYesterday at 6:58 PM

you have your crystallographer royalty like your perutz, klugs, and kendrews at frank albo’s peterhouse in cambridge. henry cavendish, lord kelvin, and clerk maxwell were also pierremaison men……(edited)

Peterhouse, Cambridge

Peterhouse is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. It is the oldest college of the university, having been founded in 1284 by Hugo de Balsham, Bishop of Ely, and granted its charter by King Edward I. Today, Peterhouse ha…

smjYesterday at 7:00 PM…


smjYesterday at 10:43 PM

linus pauling was the only two time unshared nobel narrative award. he was the xray crystallographer that brought the psi symbol to physical chemistry. he studied under this guy……… …he was inspired by the usual suspects of course. like fritz london who was involved in the bose-einstein probability distribution absurdity of course…… “It is at that time, in 1938, that he explained that the superfluidity in liquid helium was a manifestation of Bose-Einstein condensation, a purely quantum phenomenon that could be seen for the first time on a macroscopic scale. This work followed a series of articles about superconductivity that could finally be understood as a superfluidity of charged particles (electron pairs in the case of superconducting metals). At the beginning of World War II (September 1939), he left France and joined Duke University (USA) where Paul Gross had offered him a professorship in the Chemistry Department and where he felt more comfortable with his wife, the painter Edith London. Einstein wanted the

Richard C. Tolman

Richard Chace Tolman (March 4, 1881 – September 5, 1948) was an American mathematical physicist and physical chemist who was an authority on statistical mechanics. He also made important contributions to theoretical cosmology in the years soon …

Nobel Prize to be awarded to Fritz London, but London died prematurely in 1954.  The “London equations” prove that a magnetic field only penetrates the surface of a superconducting material because the absence of collisions between the electrons enables the electricity to be transported with no loss. The “London penetration depth” defines the maximum penetration length of a magnetic field in a superconductor. According to John Bardeen, one of the creators of the BCS theory of superconductivity, it was Fritz London who made quantum physics take a huge step from the microscopic subatomic scale to the macroscopic world of matter on a human scale.?Since London’s death, the “Fritz London memorial prize” rewards the best works in Low Temperature Physics of Condensed Matter. John Bardeen gave part of his second Nobel Prize to help financing the London Prize.”…

“In 1926 Pauling was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship to travel to Europe, to study under German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld in Munich, Danish physicist Niels Bohr in Copenhagen and Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in Zürich. All three were experts in the new field of quantum mechanics and other branches of physics.[3] Pauling became interested in how quantum mechanics might be applied in his chosen field of interest, the electronic structure of atoms and molecules. In Zürich, Pauling was also exposed to one of the first quantum mechanical analyses of bonding in the hydrogen molecule, done by Walter Heitler and Fritz London.[45] Pauling devoted the two years of his European trip to this work and decided to make it the focus of his future research. He became one of the first scientists in the field of quantum chemistry and a pioneer in the application of quantum theory to the structure of molecules.[46] In 1927, Pauling took a new position as an assistant professor at Caltech in theoretical chemistry.[47] He launched his faculty career with a very productive five years, continuing with his X-ray crystal studies and also performing quantum mechanical calculations on atoms and molecules. He published approximately fifty papers in those five years, and created the five rules now known as Pauling’s rules.[48][49] By 1929, he was promoted to associate professor, and by 1930, to full professor.[47] In 1931, the American Chemical Society awarded Pauling the Langmuir Prize for the most significant work in pure science by a person 30 years of age or younger.[50] The following year, Pauling published what he regarded as his most important paper, in which he first laid out the concept of hybridization of atomic orbitals and analyzed the tetravalency of the carbon atom.[51]

At Caltech, Pauling struck up a close friendship with theoretical physicist Robert Oppenheimer, who was spending part of his research and teaching schedule away from U.C. Berkeley at Caltech every year.[52][53] Pauling was also affiliated to UC Berkeley as Visiting Lecturer in Physics and Chemistry from 1929–1934.[54] Oppenheimer even gave Pauling a stunning personal collection of minerals.[55] The two men planned to mount a joint attack on the nature of the chemical bond: apparently Oppenheimer would supply the mathematics and Pauling would interpret the results. Their relationship soured when Oppenheimer tried to pursue Pauling’s wife, Ava Helen. When Pauling was at work, Oppenheimer came to their home and blurted out an invitation to Ava Helen to join him on a tryst in Mexico. She flatly refused, and reported the incident to Pauling. He immediately cut off his relationship with Oppenheimer.[52]:152[53]…

Linus Pauling

Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, and educator. He published more than 1,200 papers and books, of which about 850 dealt with scientific topics. New Scientist ca…

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