A critical review of extracting DNA. If your mind wanders towards “a witch’s brew” then you wouldn’t be far off.
This is simple trickery of the chemical mind.
I am posting this as serious humour. It relates to all forms of ‘testing’ for alleged ‘bacteria’, viruses’ and other imaginative concoctions by the so-called ‘scientific’ community and heralded as ‘fact’ by the Main Sewer News and its supporters.
Review of an article from Pathway Genomics
When I read this article, I was astounded by the methods by which they allegedly extract ‘D.N.A.’ from a living body and thus the standard and now virtually ‘set in concrete’ texts regarding ‘genes’, ‘genomes’ and so forth. I remember reading their book (via a Penguin Book in the early 1960’s) and was fascinated by it; so fascinated that I could eventually draw the sequence from memory and I still have my original notes.
I now, after many years refute this notion of ‘genetics’ as portrayed and apparently accepted by the masses (including so-called scholars) because of the methods used for ‘extraction’ of any substance from the human body (‘cells’ or fluid) and its viability as an explanation for biological processes.
My contention is that you cannot explain a life-form from its constituent extracted ‘parts’ since they are linked together in toto and something which would be ‘dead’ cannot be seen to be part of a living structure. To me, at least, this would be inexplicable.
The same notion for any sort of ‘test’ requiring the extraction of anything from a human body and manipulated by any means outside of it, is simply ludicrous.
My comments are equally suitable for any other so-called tests.
Comments in Times New Roman between […]. Article in Bold.
Over the years, DNA tests have been continuously refined to the point where people, in the comforts of their own home, can provide a sample that lab technicians can use to map out a comprehensive report of their genome. Through a small sample of blood, saliva, cheek cells, or a hair follicle, you can better understand your body and its needs.
[WoW! Exciting stuff!]
When you use a DNA test [does that mean I can do it myself?], you provide a sample, usually either blood or saliva. Once this sample arrives at the lab, technicians [Yippee!] extract the DNA from this sample. Known as DNA extraction, this is a process by which DNA is isolated from the nucleus of cells. [Hmmm.]Along with DNA testing, DNA extraction is also used to detect bacteria or viruses in the environment. [Please define ‘bacteria’ and ‘viruses’.]
There are a number of techniques for DNA extraction. For example, the molecular technique FISH (Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization) is used to identify and itemize particular bacterial groups, [How?] whereas sequencing is done to compare portions of or whole genomes with existing sequence in a public database. [Please show examples (bacterial groups, sequencing and explain what they mean. It sounds ‘fishy’ to me.]
[Nitty gritty.]The Five Steps for DNA Extraction
While there are DNA extraction kits available, which extract DNA from cell types, these can be expensive, so most scientists and labs develop their own method for extracting DNA. [El cheapo.]While there may be slight deviations, there are general steps labs follow to extract DNA from your sample. [Why would there be deviations? What difference does it make to the findings?]
Step 1: Technicians first break open the cells [To release the inmates?] in your sample to release the DNA. [You are assuming D.N.A. exists.] This process is known as lysing, as lysins are used to dissolve the cells. To separate the cells in your sample, technicians will grind them [!] and add them to a salt solution. [We are a long way from their alleged existence already.]The sodium ions in the salt, which are positively charged, help protect the phosphate groups that are found in the backbone of DNA, as they’re negatively charged. [How do you explain that?] Following, a detergent, such as SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate), is added to remove lipids in the cell membrane and nuclei. [In other words, we batter once healthy ‘cells’ into oblivion and whatever is left is considered D.N.A.?] As these membranes break down, DNA is released.
Step 2: Next, DNA must be separated from proteins. [What ‘proteins’? Explain ‘proteins.]This cellular debris [It is certainly that!]can make it difficult to get a clean [!] [Sorry… of course it has been washed with detergent.] reading of DNA, so technicians [!] strive to get as clean a sample of DNA as they can. [If not, then what?]There are a few different ways to remove cellular debris and proteins. One method for precipitating the protein is to add ammonium, sodium acetate, or another salt. By vortexing with phenol-chloroform and centrifuging, the proteins can be drawn off. Alternatively, a protein enzyme may be added to the sample to degrade any proteins. [My mind is boggled at this atrocity towards what was living tissue before it was taken from a host.]
Step 3: After technicians have a clean sample of DNA, they add ice-cold ethanol or isopropanol. While DNA is soluble in water, it isn’t soluble when salt or alcohol are present. The alcohol helps wash the sample and remove the salt that was previously added. As they stir the alcohol in the sample, a white, stringy precipitate (imagine spit in a glass of water
[not really as far as I am concerned but then I am not a ‘technician’.) appears and it can be retrieved. [Lordy, lordy, how much of this drivel is one supposed to acquire before I expire from laughter?]
Step 4: Once the DNA sample is extracted, technicians will further purify and clean it. [By now, whatever it is, cannot possibly be anything of value in a biological sense.] Once clean, it’s resuspended in a buffer that’s slightly alkaline, such as Tris, and is ready to use. [One might ask for what!]
Step 5: Even when it’s ready to use, technicians still need to determine the quality and concentration of the DNA. For example, if not enough DNA is extracted, an additional swab may be needed. [Perhaps a whole living body?] Using a spectrophotometer [?], technicians for an optical density reading[??] , technicians can confirm the presence of the DNA. [Yipee!]Alternatively, instead of an optical density reading, technicians may use gel electrophoresis to indicate the presence of DNA. [Now that is very clever. What is gel electrophoresis? It certainly sounds pretty clever to me.]
Once technicians [Those dear boys and girls work very hard washing things, don’t they, especially having been brain-washed into believing what they do is anything near real.] have a clean DNA sample extracted from your swab, they can review your DNA for a number of factors. [Which might be?] While 99.9% of DNA from two people will be identical, that 0.1% varies, and it’s what makes us unique. [The %’s are staggering! Really?] Known as genetic markers, these are what scientists focus on when conducting a DNA test.
DNA testing can reveal your genetic ethnicity and risk factors and potential diseases you may have inherited (or may eventually inherit) from your parents, help you lose weight and more. [Oh, for goodness sake!] And as we’ve all seen on crime shows, [Well, you might have.] DNA samples can also be used to aid in crime scenes and trials, as fingerprints and blood samples can be used to determine the victim and perpetrator. [These have all been disputed many, many times.]
At Pathway Genomics, we offer a number of DNA tests centered on your health. From understanding your dietary and exercise needs to screening for potential cancer genes,[Oh, dear this is terrible. Who says there are ‘cancer’ genes? Where do you get the idea that ‘cancer’ is caused by genes?] DNA testing can empower you to make informed decisions about your health. [Sorry, bovine excrement.] With a small sample of DNA, you can uncover a number of things about your health and body you never knew. [Extremely doubtful.]
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