TYCHOS glossary

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Animation of a binary star system

This is a glossary of terms, celestial bodies and researchers mentioned in and related to the TYCHOS book, first published by Simon Shack on March 21st, 2018.[T 1] Simon and Patrix, developer of the Tychosium, were interviewed on April 9, 2018, by Hoi Polloi and Kham in Clues Chronicle 25.[T 2]


Note: mainstream definition is listed, the TYCHOS redefines certain terms

Mainstream terms used in the TYCHOS book
Term Description
TYCHOS in bold
bold in detail
binary star/binary system a binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter. These systems, especially when more distant, often appear to the unaided eye as a single point of light, and are then revealed as multiple by other means. The Open Exoplanet Catalogue lists several planets in binary or multiple star systems. 1, 3, 4, 5, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 27, 28 [T 3]
[WT 1]
apparent magnitude a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. The brighter an object appears, the lower its magnitude value (i.e. inverse relation). 35 [T 4]
[WT 2]
astronomical unit (AU) a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun. However, that distance varies as Earth orbits the Sun, from a maximum (aphelion) to a minimum (perihelion) and back again once a year. Originally conceived as the average of Earth's aphelion and perihelion, it was defined exactly as 149,597,870,700 metres or about 150 million kilometres (93 million miles) since 2012. 5, 15, 17, 26, 32, 33, 36 [WT 3]
light-year(ly) a unit of length used to express astronomical distances and measures about 9.5 trillion kilometres or 5.9 trillion miles. As defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), a light-year is the distance that light travels in vacuum in one Julian year (365.25 days). 35 [T 4]
[WT 4]
parsec (pc) a unit of length used to measure large distances to astronomical objects outside the Solar System. A parsec was defined as the distance at which one astronomical unit subtends an angle of one arcsecond, but it was redefined in 2015 to exactly 648000 / π astronomical units. One parsec is equal to about 3.26 light-years (30 trillion km or 19 trillion miles) in length. 35 [T 4]
[WT 5]
right ascension (RA) the angular distance measured eastward along the celestial equator from the Sun at the March equinox to the hour circle of the point above the Earth in question. When paired with declination, these astronomical coordinates specify the direction of a point on the celestial sphere (traditionally called in English the skies or the sky) in the equatorial coordinate system. 6, 9, 16, 19, 27 [WT 6]
declination (DECL) one of the two angles that locate a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system, the other being hour angle. Declination's angle is measured north or south of the celestial equator, along the hour circle passing through the point in question. 8, 12 [WT 7]
celestial equator the great circle of the imaginary celestial sphere on the same plane as the equator of Earth. This plane of reference bases the equatorial coordinate system. In other words, the celestial equator is an abstract projection of the terrestrial equator into outer space. As a result of the planet's axial tilt, the celestial equator is currently inclined by about 23.44° with respect to the ecliptic plane. 5, 8, 12 [WT 8]
celestial sphere an abstract sphere with an arbitrarily large radius concentric to Earth. All objects in the sky can be conceived as being projected upon the inner surface of the celestial sphere, which may be centered on Earth or the observer. 16, 19, 20, 23, 24, 26, 28, 29, 36 [WT 9]
perigee term describing the position of a celestial body closest to Earth. 3, 11, 12, 20, 24, 27, 28 [WT 10]
apogee term describing the position of a celestial body farthest from Earth. 20, 24, 28 [WT 10]
perihelion term describing the position of the Sun closest to Earth. The Earth reaches perihelion in early January, approximately 14 days after the December solstice. At perihelion, the Earth's center is about 0.98329 astronomical units (AU) or 147,098,070 km (91,402,500 mi) from the Sun's center. 10, 17, 20, 24, 27, 28, 30 [WT 11]
aphelion term describing the position of the Sun farthest from Earth. The Earth reaches aphelion currently in early July, approximately 14 days after the June solstice. The aphelion distance between the Earth's and Sun's centers is currently about 1.01671 AU or 152,097,700 km (94,509,100 mi). 17, 20 [WT 11]
equinox commonly regarded as the moment the plane of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun's disk, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September. It is the point in which the center of the visible sun is directly over the equator. This simplified, but incorrect, understanding of Earth's orbital motion can lead to errors of up to 69 seconds from the actual time of equinox. 1, 5, 6, 8, 16, 18, 30, 31, 33 [WT 12]
solstice an event occurring when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere. Two solstices occur annually, around June 21 and December 21. The seasons of the year are directly connected to both the solstices and the equinoxes. 8, 30, 31, 33 [WT 13]
conjunction (inferior/superior) a conjunction occurs when two astronomical objects have either the same right ascension or the same ecliptic longitude, as observed from Earth. When two objects always appear close to the ecliptic —such as two planets, the Moon and a planet, or the Sun and a planet— this fact implies an apparent close approach between the objects as seen on the sky. 7, 9, 10, 11, 21, 28 [WT 14]
prograde in our Solar System, all of the planets and most of the other objects that orbit the Sun, with the exception of many comets, do so in the "prograde" direction, i.e. the same sense as the rotation of the Sun. In addition, the rotations of most planets are prograde. 7, 9 [T 5][T 6]
[WT 15]
retrograde motion that is contrary to the rotation of the primary, that is, the object that forms the system's hub. Rotation is determined with respect to an inertial frame of reference, such as distant fixed stars. 7, 9 [T 5][T 6]
[WT 15]
proper motion the astronomical measure of the observed changes in the apparent places of stars or other celestial objects in the sky, as seen from the center of mass of the Solar System, compared to the abstract background of the more distant stars. 36 [T 7]
[WT 16]
radial velocity the rate of change of the distance between the object and the point. That is, the radial velocity is the component of the object's velocity that points in the direction of the radius connecting the object and the point. In astronomy, the point is usually taken to be the observer on Earth, so the radial velocity then denotes the speed with which the object moves away from or approaches the Earth. 36 [T 7]
[WT 17]
negative stellar parallax negative stellar parallax has been measured in about 23% of all cases where parallax was measured by the Hipparcos and Gaia space telescopes. Negative parallax is impossible in the Copernican model. 36 [T 7]
deferent in both Hipparchian and Ptolemaic systems, the planets are assumed to move in a small circle called an epicycle, which in turn moves along a larger circle called a deferent. 6 [T 8]
[WT 18]
epicycle a geometric model used to explain the variations in speed and direction of the apparent motion of the Moon, Sun, and planets. In particular it explained the apparent retrograde motion of the five planets known at the time. Secondarily, it also explained changes in the apparent distances of the planets from the Earth. 6 [T 8]
[WT 18]
adaptive optics a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effect of incoming wavefront distortions by deforming a mirror in order to compensate for the distortion. It is used in astronomical telescopes to remove the effects of atmospheric distortion. 1 [T 9]
[WT 19]
Shack-Hartmann principle an optical instrument used for characterizing an imaging system. It is a wavefront sensor commonly used in adaptive optics systems. Shack–Hartmann sensors are used to characterize eyes for corneal treatment of complex refractive errors. 1 [T 3]
[WT 20]
aberration of light an astronomical phenomenon which produces an apparent motion of celestial objects about their true positions, dependent on the velocity of the observer. Aberration causes objects to appear to be displaced towards the direction of motion of the observer compared to when the observer is stationary. 34 [T 10]
[WT 21]
apparent retrograde motion the apparent motion of a planet in a direction opposite to that of other bodies within its system, as observed from a particular vantage point. Direct motion or prograde motion is motion in the same direction as other bodies. 5, 6, 7, 9 [WT 22]
apsidal precession the precession (rotation) of the orbit of a celestial body. More precisely, it is the gradual rotation of the line joining the apsides of an orbit, which are the points of closest and farthest approach. 28 [T 11]
[WT 23]
axial tilt the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane. 8 [T 12]
[WT 24]
circumbinary a planet that orbits two stars instead of one. Because of the short orbits of some binary stars, the only way for planets to form is by forming outside the orbit of the two stars. 9, 14, 29 [T 6]
[WT 25]
equinoctial precession a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body. In astronomy, precession refers to any of several slow changes in an astronomical body's rotational or orbital parameters. An important example is the steady change in the orientation of the axis of rotation of the Earth, known as the precession of the equinoxes. 18, 22 [T 13][T 14]
[WT 26]
[WT 27]
barycenter the center of mass of two or more bodies that are orbiting each other, which is the point around which they both orbit. 12 [T 15]
[WT 28]
tidal locking occurs when the long-term interaction between a pair of co-orbiting astronomical bodies drives the rotation rates into a harmonic ratio with the orbital period. 11 [T 16]
[WT 29]
orbital resonance occurs when orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually because their orbital periods are related by a ratio of small integers. Most commonly this relationship is found for a pair of objects. The physics principle behind orbital resonance is similar in concept to pushing a child on a swing, where the orbit and the swing both have a natural frequency, and the other body doing the "pushing" will act in periodic repetition to have a cumulative effect on the motion. Orbital resonances greatly enhance the mutual gravitational influence of the bodies, i.e. their ability to alter or constrain each other's orbits. 15, 20 [T 17][T 18]
[WT 30]
analemma a diagram showing the variation of the position of the Sun in the sky over the course of a year, as viewed at a fixed time of day and from a fixed location on the Earth. 26 [T 19]
[WT 31]
Equation of Time the discrepancy between two kinds of solar time. The word equation is used in the medieval sense of "reconcile a difference". The two times that differ are the apparent solar time, which directly tracks the diurnal motion of the Sun, and mean solar time, which tracks a theoretical mean Sun with noons 24 hours apart. 26 [T 19]
[WT 32]
Sothic cycle a period of 1,461 Egyptian civil years of 365 days each or 1,460 Julian years averaging 365¼ days each. During a Sothic cycle, the 365-day year loses enough time that the start of its year once again coincides with the heliacal rising of the star Sirius on 19 July in the Julian calendar. 25, 33 [T 20]
[WT 33]
Saros cycle a period of approximately 223 synodic months (approximately 6585.3211 days, or 18 years, 11 days, 8 hours), that can be used to predict eclipses of the Sun and Moon. One Saros cycle after an eclipse, the Sun, Earth, and Moon return to approximately the same relative geometry, a near straight line, and a nearly identical eclipse will occur, in what is referred to as an eclipse cycle. A sar is one half of a Saros cycle. 16 [T 21]
[WT 34]
exeligmos a period of 54 years, 33 days that can be used to predict successive eclipses with similar properties and location. For a solar eclipse, after every exeligmos a solar eclipse of similar characteristics will occur in a location close to the eclipse before it. For a lunar eclipse the same part of the Earth will view an eclipse that is very similar to the one that occurred one exeligmos before it. It is an eclipse cycle that is a 3 saroses long. 27 [T 22]
[WT 35]
sidereal year the time taken by the Earth to orbit the Sun once with respect to the fixed stars. 24, 31 [T 23][T 24]
[WT 36]
sidereal day approximately 23 hours, 56 minutes, 4.0905 SI seconds. The sidereal day is 0.0084 seconds shorter than Earth's period of rotation relative to the fixed stars. 23, 31 [T 25][T 24]
[WT 37]
solar year/tropical year the time that the Sun takes to return to the same position in the cycle of seasons, as seen from Earth; for example, the time from vernal equinox to vernal equinox, or from summer solstice to summer solstice. 24, 31 [T 23][T 24]
[WT 38]
solar day/civil day 23, 31 [T 25][T 24]
[WT 39]
anomalistic year the time taken for the Earth to complete one revolution with respect to its apsides. Its average duration is 365.259636 days (365 d 6 h 13 min 52.6 s). 24, 31 [T 23][T 24]
[WT 40]
leap second a one-second adjustment that is occasionally applied to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) in order to keep its time of day close to the mean solar time as realized by UT1. Without such a correction, time reckoned by Earth's rotation drifts away from atomic time because of irregularities in the Earth's rate of rotation. Since this system of correction was implemented in 1972, 27 leap seconds have been inserted, the most recent on December 31, 2016 at 23:59:60 UTC. 31 [T 24]
[WT 41]
Julian calendar proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC was a reform of the Roman calendar and took effect on 1 January 45 BC, the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar in 1582. The Julian calendar gains against the mean tropical year at the rate of one day in 128 years. The difference in the average length of the year between Julian (365.25 days) and Gregorian (365.2425 days) is 0.002%. 32, 33 [T 26][T 27]
[WT 42]
Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is internationally the most widely used civil calendar, named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582. It is considered a refinement to the Julian calendar, involving an approximately 0.002% correction in the length of the calendar year. The Julian calendar year was changed from 365.25 days (365 days 6 hours) to 365.2425 days (365 days 5 hours 49 minutes 12 seconds), a reduction of 10 minutes 48 seconds per year. 31 [T 24]
[WT 43]
Milankovitch cycles the collective effects of changes in the Earth's movements on its climate over thousands of years. Hypothesized as variations in supposed eccentricity (100,000 and 413,000 years), presumed axial tilt (~41,000 year), and precession (TYCHOS Great Year) of the Earth's orbit resulted in cyclical variation in the solar radiation reaching the Earth, and that this orbital forcing strongly influenced climatic patterns on Earth. It is an important geological parameter. 17 [T 28]
[WT 44]
Michelson-Morley experiment experiment performed between April and July, 1887 by Albert A. Michelson and Edward W. Morley in Cleveland, Ohio. It compared the speed of light in perpendicular directions, in an attempt to detect the relative motion of matter through the aether. The result was negative, in that the expected difference between the speed of light in the direction of movement through the presumed aether, and the speed at right angles, was found not to exist.
The experiment tried to measure the velocity of Earth around the Sun (an expected 107,000 km/h). It is known as the "most failed experiment in scientific history" - as no such velocity was found. Michelson even thought of "the possibility that the solar system as a whole might have moved in the opposite direction of Earth", which is precisely what Earth does in the TYCHOS, as it moves clockwise around its PVP orbit.
19 [T 29][T 2]
[WT 45]
General Relativity (GR) the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics. 28 [T 11]
[WT 46]
Binary Research Institute The Binary Research Institute was formed in 2001 to support and fund research regarding the hypothesis that the Sun is part of a binary star system. 1, 14, 18, 24, 30 [6]
NEAVE planetarium interactive sky map for exploring the stars and planets. 7, 8 [7]
SCOPE planetarium free online model of solar system and night sky. 7 [8]
Stellarium free open source planetarium for your computer. It shows a realistic sky in 3D, just like what you see with the naked eye, binoculars or a telescope. 7, 8 [9]
TYCHOS-specific terms used in the TYCHOS book
Term Description Chapters
bold in detail
TYCHOS a revised model of our solar system. Its basic orbital configuration is based on the semi-Tychonian model as defined by Longomontanus in his Astronomia Danica (1622), a monumental work regarded as Tycho Brahe’s “testament”. Although the semi-Tychonic and the TYCHOS models are geometrically similar, they significantly differ in that the latter assigns an orbit to Earth – whereas the former considers Earth as a motionless (albeit diurnally-rotating) celestial body. All [T 30]
[T 31]
Annual Constant of Precession (ACP) read the book 16, 19, 20, 22, 24, 27, 30 [T 14]
Empiric Sidereal Interval (ESI) timespan when Mars is in front of a given star. Two ESIs exist, a common long ESI of 707.5 solar days and a short ESI of 546 solar days. This observation remains unexplained in the Copernican model and Kepler fudged the observational data acquired by Tycho Brahe to hide this fact, averaging the sidereal period of Mars to 693 days. The Maya actually incorporated these different ESIs of Mars in their advanced Maya calendar. 6, 7, 10 [T 8][T 2]
geoptical read the book 34 [T 10]
PVP orbit the PVP (Polaris-Vega-Polaris) orbit of Earth is the orbit the Earth makes over the course of one TYCHOS Great Year (25,344 solar years) around a central point with a velocity of about 1.6 km/h (1 mph). 19 [T 29]
PVP constant read the book 19 [T 29]
True Mean Synodic Period (TMSP) read the book 11, 17, 27 [T 22]
Tychosium 2D a bi-dimensional overhead view (as seen from above Earth's North Pole) of our Sun-Mars 'geoaxial' binary system, developed by Patrix. 21 [T 32][T 33]
Tychosium 3D a tri-dimensional view of our Sun-Mars 'geoaxial' binary system, in development by Patrix. 21 [T 32][T 34]
TYCHOS Great Year (TGY) the period in which the Earth makes one PVP orbit, duration 25,344 solar years. 16, 30, 32 [T 21][T 35]
[T 26]
TYCHOS reduction factor in the TYCHOS, the stars are approximately 42,633 times closer to Earth than in the Copernican model. 36 [T 7][T 2]

Celestial bodies

Note: bodies with a higher apparent magnitude than about 4 (city) or 6 (faintest) are not visible with the naked eye
The added zeros are for proper sorting

Appearing in the sky[10] Meaning in TYCHOS[T 36]
March - northern spring, southern fall near-zero parallax
June - northern summer, southern winter positive parallax
September - northern fall, southern spring near-zero parallax
December - northern winter, southern summer negative parallax
All year - Northern/Southern latitudes variable parallaxes
Variable variable parallaxes
dM distance according to Mainstream (ly for stars, AU for planets and moons)
dT distance according to TYCHOS (AU)[T 7]
Star (bold number of exoplanets, p possible planets) stars (many more)[WB 1] and (exoplanets) at TYCHOS distances <78 AU (<52.5 ly) are within TYCHOS binary system sphere (closer than Pluto)
Celestial bodies (not) mentioned in the TYCHOS book
Sky Name App. magnitude dM dT Description Chapters
bold in detail
Earth Home. All [WB 2]
Sun -26.74 1 0001 Our star, accompanied by Mars in a binary system. Orbital period of 12.5 x 29.22 days (365.25 days). All [T 37]
[WB 3]
V Moon -12.74 0.0024 0.0024 Moon of Earth. Orbital period of 1 x 29.22 days. Preface, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 23, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 [T 22][T 37]
[WB 4]
V Mercury -02.6-5.7 0.3-0.46 0.51-1.48 Junior moon of the Sun. Orbital period of 4 x 29.22 days (116.88 days). Preface, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 27, 28, Epilogue [T 38][T 39]
[T 37]
[WB 5]
V Venus -04.9 to -3.8 0.72 0.25-1 Senior moon of the Sun. Orbital period of 20 x 29.22 days (584.4 days). 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 20, 27 [T 40][T 16]
[T 37]
[WB 6]
V Mars -03.0-1.6 1.38-1.66 0.37-2.66 Binary companion of the Sun. Orbital period of 25 x 29.22 days (730.5 days). Preface, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 26, 27, 36, Epilogue [T 41][T 37]
[WB 7]
V Jupiter -02.94 to -1.6 5.19 0005.19 P-type planet. Orbital period of 150 x 29.22 days (4383 days). 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 20, 26, 27, 29, 36 [T 42][T 37]
[WB 8]
V Saturn -00.24-1.47 9.51 0009.51 P-type planet. Orbital period of 375 x 29.22 days (10,957.5 days). 2, 3, 6, 9, 13, 15, 29, 35, 36 [T 42]
[WB 9]
V Uranus 05.32-5.9 38.29 0038.29 P-type planet. Orbital period of 1050 x 29.22 days (30,681 days). 9, 13, 15, 29 [T 42]
[WB 10]
V Neptune 07.78-8.02 59.93 0059.93 P-type planet. Orbital period of 2062.5 x 29.22 days (60,266.25 days). 9, 13, 15, 29 [T 42]
[WB 11]
V Pluto 13.65-16.3 78.75 0078.75 P-type planet. Orbital period of 3100 x 29.22 days (90,582 days). 9, 15, 29 [T 42]
[WB 12]
V Phobos 11.8 1.38-1.66~ 0.37-2.66~ Senior moon of Mars. 3, 5 [T 43]
[WB 13]
V Deimos 12.89 1.38-1.66~ 0.37-2.66~ Junior moon of Mars. 3, 5 [T 43]
[WB 14]
V Ganymede 04.38-4.61 5.19~ 0005.19~ Largest Galilean moon of Jupiter. 3 [T 43]
[WB 15]
V Io 05.02 5.19~ 0005.19~ Innermost Galilean moon of Jupiter. 3, 26 [T 43]
[WB 16]
V Europa 05.29 5.19~ 0005.19~ Smallest Galilean moon of Jupiter. 3 [T 43]
[WB 17]
V Callisto 05.65 5.19~ 0005.19~ 2nd-largest Galilean moon of Jupiter. [WB 18]
V Titan 08.2-9.0 9.51~ 0009.51~ Largest moon of Saturn. [WB 19]
V Iapetus 10.2-11.9 9.51~ 0009.51~ 3rd-largest moon of Saturn. [WB 20]
V Rhea 10 9.51~ 0009.51~ 2nd-largest moon of Saturn. [WB 21]
V Tethys 10.2 9.51~ 0009.51~ 2nd-brightest moon of Saturn. [WB 22]
V Dione 10.4 9.51~ 0009.51~ 3rd of inner moons of Saturn. [WB 23]
V Enceladus 11.7 9.51~ 0009.51~ 6th-largest moon of Saturn. [WB 24]
V Mimas 12.9 9.51~ 0009.51~ Moon of Saturn. Smallest celestial body that is spherical, allegedly due to gravitation. [WB 25]
V Triton 13.47 59.93~ 0059.93~ Largest moon of Neptune. [WB 26]
V Titania 13.9 38.29~ 0038.29~ Largest moon of Uranus. [WB 27]
V Oberon 14.1 38.29~ 0038.29~ 2nd-largest moon of Uranus. [WB 28]
V Ariel 14.4 38.29~ 0038.29~ 4th-largest moon of Uranus. [WB 29]
V Umbriel 14.5 38.29~ 0038.29~ 3rd-largest moon of Uranus. [WB 30]
V Miranda 15.8 38.29~ 0038.29~ 5th-largest moon of Uranus. [WB 31]
V Main Asteroid Belt V 2-3 0002-3 Asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. 14 [T 44]
[WB 32]
V Kuiper Belt V 30-50 ? Kuiper object belt outside of orbit of Neptune. 14 [T 44]
[WB 33]
D Sirius -01.46 8.60 ± 0.04 0012.75 Brightest star in the night sky, binary system. 1, 3, 4, 6, 32, 33 [T 45]
[WB 34]
AN Vega(p) -00.02-0.07 25.04 ± 0.07 0037.15 5th-brightest star in the night sky. 5, 14, 19, 26, 36 [WB 35]
J Fomalhaut(1) 01.16 25.13 ± 0.09 0037.28 18th-brightest star in the night sky. Binary star system with the first confirmed exoplanet, Fomalhaut b, 2nd-brightest star with exoplanets, after Pollux. 14 [T 44]
[WB 36]
[WB 37]
J Deneb 01.25 1500-3227 2225-4787 19th brightest star in the night sky. Distance estimated between 1500 and 3227 ly. 35 [T 4]
[WB 38]
AS Alpha & Proxima Centauri (1) 01.33 4.37 0006.48 Binary/triple star system, closest to Earth. Exoplanet found around Proxima Centauri, more suspected. 1, 35, 36 [T 4][T 7]
[WB 39]
[WB 40]
[WB 41]
M Regulus 01.4 79.3 ± 0.7 0117.65 21st brightest star in the night sky. 4+ star system. Near ecliptic. 6 [T 8]
[WB 42]
AN Polaris 01.86-2.13 323–433 0479-642 North Star, binary system. Preface, 5, 8, 18, 19, 34, Epilogue [T 29]
[WB 43]
AN Gamma Draconis 02.23 154.3 ± 0.7 0229 Brightest star of Draco. London Zenith Star. Used by James Bradley for the supposed aberration of light. May have a companion. Epilogue [T 46]
[WB 44]
J Delta Capricorni 02.81 38.70 ± 0.09 0057.41 Binary system. 7 [T 5]
[WB 45]
D Tau Ceti (4) 03.5 11.905 ± 0.007 0017.66 Single star, first analysis showed 5 exoplanets. Subsequent research discarded 3 of them, but found 2 more. 14 [T 44]
[WB 46]
AN Thuban 03.65 303 ± 5 0449 PVP Pole Star over time. 19 [T 29]
[WB 47]
D Epsilon Eridani (p) 03.74 10.475 ± 0.003 0015.5 Single star, exoplanet and asteroid belt supposed. 14 [T 44]
[WB 48]
D Beta Pictoris 03.86 63.4 ± 0.1 0094 Single star, exoplanet found. 14 [T 44]
[WB 49]
J 61 Cygni (p) 05.2 11.41 ± 0.02 0016.9 Binary star system, first star (system) where parallax was measured by Bessel. Exoplanets claimed, not certain. 36 [T 7]
[WB 50]
AN V762 Cas 05.87 2764.1-14,825.6 4100-21,996 Farthest star visible with the naked eye at 14,825.61 ly (4545.45 Pc) (1997) or 2764.10 ly (847.46 Pc) (2007). 35 [T 4]
D 55 Cancri (5) 05.95 40.3 ± 0.4 0059.8 Binary star system, 5 exoplanets found, 55 Cancri c named Brahe. 14 [T 44]
[WB 51]
[WB 52]
J Barnard's Star 09.51 5.978 ± 0.002 0008.87 Wandering star, highest proper motion. Preface [T 30]
[WB 53]
D Canopus -00.74 310 ± 20 0460 2nd-brightest star in the night sky. [WB 54]
M Arcturus (p) -00.05 36.7 ± 0.2 0054.4 4th-brightest star in the night sky. [WB 55]
D Capella 00.03-0.16 42.919 ± 0.049 0063.6 6th-brightest star in the night sky, double binary star system. [WB 56]
D Rigel 00.05-0.18 860 ± 80 1276 7th-brightest star in the night sky, brightest of Orion, 3 to 5 star system. [WB 57]
D Procyon 00.34 11.46 ± 0.05 0017 8th-brightest star in the night sky, binary system. [WB 58]
D Betelgeuse 00.0-1.3 640 0949 9th-brightest star in the night sky, 2nd-brightest of Orion. [WB 59]
AS Achernar 00.40-0.46 139 ± 3 0206 10th-brightest star in the night sky, binary system. [WB 60]
AS Beta Centauri 00.61 390 ± 20 0578 11th-brightest star in the night sky. Triple star system. [WB 61]
J Altair 00.76 16.73 ± 0.05 0024.82 12th-brightest star in the night sky, breaking up? [WB 62]
AS Alpha Crucis 00.76 320 ± 20 0474 13th-brightest star in the night sky. Multiple star system. [WB 63]
D Aldebaran 00.75-0.95 65.3 ± 1.0 0096.88 14th-brightest star in the night sky. Likely hosting exoplanets. [WB 64]
M Antares 00.6-1.6 550~ 0816~ 15th-brightest star in the night sky. Likely largest known star. [WB 65]
M Spica 00.97-1.04 250 ± 10 0371 16th-brightest star in the night sky, binary system. [WB 66]
D Pollux (1) 01.14 33.78 ± 0.09 0050.11 17th-brightest star in the night sky. Brightest star with an exoplanet. [WB 67]
[WB 68]
AS Mimosa 01.23-1.31 280 ± 20 0415 20th-brightest star in the night sky, binary system. [WB 69]
D Bellatrix 01.59-1.64 250 ± 10 0371 25th-brightest star in the night sky. Right shoulder of Orion (seen from Northern hemisphere, the left shoulder is Betelgeuse). [WB 70]
S Pleiades 01.6 444
Seven stars appearing close together in the constellation of Taurus. [WB 71]
AS Gamma Crucis 01.64 88.6 ± 0.4 0131.45 Single star. [WB 72]
D Alnilam 01.69 2000~ 2967~ Central star of Orion's Belt. Single star. [WB 73]
D Alnitak 01.77 1,260 ± 180 1869 Left star of Orion's Belt (seen from Northern hemisphere). Triple star system. [WB 74]
AN Alioth 01.77 82.6 ± 0.4 0122.5 31st-brightest star in the night sky. Leftmost and brightest star of the Big Dipper. [WB 75]
AN Dubhe 01.79 123 ± 2 0182.4 2nd-brightest star of the Big Dipper. Has a companion. [WB 76]
AN Alkaid 01.86 103.9 ± 0.8 0154.1 3rd-brightest star of the Big Dipper. Single star. [WB 77]
D Castor 01.93 51 ± 3 0075.6 Triple star system. [WB 78]
AN Mizar 02.04 82.9 ± 0.6 0123 4th-brightest star of the Big Dipper. Visual double star, part of quadruple system with Alcor. [WB 79]
D Saiph 02.09 650 ± 30 0964 Left foot of Orion (seen from Northern hemisphere, the right foot is Rigel). [WB 80]
M Denebola (p) 02.11 35.9 ± 0.2 0053.2 Single star, possibly variable, exoplanets suspected. [WB 81]
M Algol 02.12-3.39 90 ± 3 0133.5 Triple star system. [WB 82]
D Mintaka 02.23 691-1400 1025-2077 Right star of Orion's Belt (seen from Northern hemisphere). Multiple star system. The distance derived from the Hipparcos satellite parallax is 212 ± 30 pc (691 ± 97.8), while spectroscopic distances, comparisons to similar stars, and cluster membership all suggest a value more than double that (~1400 ly). This type of unreconcilable discrepancy is not unique to Mintaka and the reasons for it have yet to be clarified. [WB 83]
AN Merak 02.37 79.7 ± 0.3 0118.2 5th-brightest star of the Big Dipper. Single star. [WB 84]
AN Phecda 02.43 83.2 ± 0.8 0123.4 6th-brightest star of the Big Dipper. Astrometric binary. [WB 85]
AN Alderamin 02.51 49.05 ± 0.08 0072.77 Pole Star over time. [WB 86]
J Eta Boötis 02.68 37.2 ± 0.5 0055.1 Binary star. Since 1943, the spectrum of this star has served as one of the stable anchor points by which other stars are classified. [WB 87]
J Gamma Virginis 02.74 38.1 ± 0.3 0056.5 Binary star. As Gamma Virginis is close to the ecliptic, it can be occulted by the Moon and (extremely rarely) by planets. In June 2011, Saturn came within a quarter of a degree from Porrima. [WB 88]
D Beta Hydri (p) 02.80 24.33 ± 0.02 0036 Single star, possible exoplanets. [WB 89]
D Tabit (p) 03.16 26.32 ± 0.04 0039 Brightest star in the shield of Orion. Possibly a single star, possible exoplanets. Since 1943, the spectrum of this star has served as one of the stable anchor points by which other stars are classified. [WB 90]
AN Gamma Cephei (1) 03.21 44.9 ± 0.3 0066.6 Binary star with 1 exoplanet (Tadmor). [WB 91]
[WB 92]
AN Megrez 03.31 58.4 ± 0.3 0086.64 7th-brightest (dimmest) star of the Big Dipper. Two companions. [WB 93]
J Mu Herculis 03.41 27.11 ± 0.04 0040.2 Quadruple star system. Since 1943, the spectrum of this star has served as one of the stable anchor points by which other stars are classified. [WB 94]
D Eta Cassiopeiae 03.44 19.42 ± 0.06 0028.8 Binary star, first discovered by William Herschel in August 1779. [WB 95]
D Delta Eridani 03.54 29.49 ± 0.08 0043.7 Single star. [WB 96]
S Delta Pavonis 03.56 19.92 ± 0.02 0029.55 Single Sun-like star, the nearest solar analog that is not a member of a binary or multiple star system. [WB 97]
J Chi Draconis 03.57 26.3 ± 0.2 0039 Binary star. In 1898 this system was reported to be a spectroscopic binary system, with an orbital period of 280.55 days. [WB 98]
M Gamma Leporis (p) 03.58 29.12 ± 0.05 0043.2 Single star, candidate for exoplanet hunters. [WB 99]
J Beta Virginis (p) 03.60 35.65 ± 0.09 0052.9 Single star. It is 0.69 degrees north of the ecliptic, so it can be occulted by the Moon and (rarely) by planets. The next planetary occultation of Zavijava will take place on 11 August 2069, by Venus. [WB 100]
D Upsilon Andromedae (4) 04.09 44.25 ± 0.06 0065.65 Binary star with 4 exoplanets. [WB 101]
J 70 Ophiuchi (2) 04.12 16.58 ± 0.07 0024.5 Binary star. In 1855, William Stephen Jacob of the Madras Observatory claimed that the orbit of the binary showed an anomaly, and it was "highly probable" that there was a "planetary body in connection with this system". This is the first attempt to use radial velocity to detect an exoplanet, and the first based on astrometric evidence. [WB 102]
D 82 G. Eridani (3, 3 p) 04.25 19.71 ± 0.02 0029.24 High velocity Sun-like star with 3 confirmed and 3 possible exoplanets. [WB 103]
D 10 Tauri 04.29 45.5 ± 0.3 0067.5 Single star with debris disk identified. [WB 104]
D 40 Eridani 04.43 16.26 ± 0.02 0024.1 Triple star system, components discovered on January 31, 1783, by William Herschel. [WB 105]
J Tau Boötis (1) 04.50 50.9 ± 0.2 0075.52 Binary star with 1 exoplanet. [WB 106]
J Sigma Draconis (1 p) 04.67 18.77 ± 0.02 0027.8 Single star with unconfirmed possible exoplanet. [WB 107]
J Xi Boötis 04.70 21.89 ± 0.07 0032.4 Binary star. [WB 108]
J 61 Virginis (2, 1 p) 04.74 27.90 ± 0.05 0041.39 Star with 2 confirmed and 1 unconfirmed exoplanets. [WB 109]
S Epsilon Indi (1) 04.83 11.81 ± 0.01 0035 Triple star system with 1 exoplanet. [WB 110]
J 66 G. Centauri (1) 04.88 30.07 ± 0.06 0044.61 Binary star with 1 exoplanet. [WB 111]
AN Chalawan (1) 05.03 45.9 ± 0.2 0068 Yellow dwarf star with 1 exoplanet. [WB 112]
J 36 Ophiuchi 05.08 19.5 ± 0.1 0028.9 Triple star system. [WB 113]
J Cervantes (4) 05.12 50.6 ± 0.2 0075 Single star with 4 exoplanets. [WB 114]
S HD 176051(1) 05.22 48.5 ± 0.3 0071.9 Binary star with 1 exoplanet. [WB 115]
J 62 G. Scorpii (4) 05.38 41.7 ± 0.2 0061.8 Sun-like star with 1 exoplanet. [WB 116]
S 51 Pegasi (1) 05.49 50.9 ± 0.3 0075.52 Sun-like star with 1 exoplanet, 51 Pegasi b (officially named Dimidium, formerly unofficially dubbed Bellerophon), the first main-sequence star found to have an exoplanet orbiting it. [WB 117]
J Gliese 570 (p) 05.64 19.0 ± 0.1 0028.1 Multiple system of orange, two red and a brown dwarf, exoplanets claimed but later refuted. Parallax measurements by Hipparcos had a relatively large error as Earth-based parallax and orbit observations suggest that the two stars are actually part of a system with Gliese 570 A, and must actually lie at the same distance. [WB 118]
S Gliese 777 (2) 05.71 51.7 ± 0.3 0076.7 Binary star with 2 exoplanets. [WB 119]
S Gliese 785 (2) 05.73 29.06 ± 0.08 0043.11 Sun-like star with 2 exoplanets. [WB 120]
D Gliese 892 (5, 2 p) 05.74 21.35 ± 0.04 0031.67 Star with companion and 5 confirmed and 2 unconfirmed exoplanets. [WB 121]
J Nu2 Lupi (3) 05.78 48.3 ± 0.3 0071.66 Sun-like star with 3 exoplanets. [WB 122]
D 54 Piscium (1) 05.88 36.1 ± 0.1 0053.5 Yellow and brown dwarf binary star with 1 exoplanet. [WB 123]
J Gliese 667 (2) 05.91 23.2 ± 0.3 0034.42 Triple star system with 2 exoplanets. [WB 124]
D HD 38858 (1) 05.97 49.5 ± 0.3 0073.4 Sun-like star with 1 exoplanet. [WB 125]
M HD 69830 (3) 05.98 40.7 ± 0.2 0060.3 Yellow dwarf star with 3 exoplanets and an asteroid belt. [WB 126]
D Gliese 86 (2) 06.17 35.2 ± 0.1 0052.2 Binary star with 1 exoplanet. [WB 127]
M HD 40307 (6) 07.17 41.8 ± 0.3 0062 Single star with 6 exoplanets. [WB 128]
M HD 85512 (1) 07.66 36.4 ± 0.3 0054 Single star with 1 exoplanet. [WB 129]
S Gliese 832 (2) 08.66 16.16 ± 0.08 0023.97 Red dwarf with 2 exoplanets. [WB 130]
D Kapteyn's Star (2) 08.85 12.76 ± 0.05 0018.9 Faint red dwarf with 2 exoplanets. Closest halo star. [WB 131]
[WB 132]
J HD 113538 (2) 09.05 52 ± 1 0077.5 Single star with 2 exoplanets. [WB 133]
AN Gliese 687 (1) 09.15 14.77 ± 0.06 0021.91 Red dwarf with 1 exoplanet. [WB 134]
J Gliese 674 (1) 09.38 14.81 ± 0.10 0021.97 Red dwarf with 1 exoplanet. [WB 135]
J Gliese 649 (1) 09.62 33.8 ± 0.1 0050.1 Red dwarf with 1 exoplanet. [WB 136]
J DT Virginis (1) 09.72 38.1 ± 0.7 0056.5 Binary red dwarf system with 1 exoplanet. [WB 137]
J V1054 Ophiuchi (5) 09.74 21.05 ± 0.07 0031.22 5-star system, all red dwarfs. Closest quintuple system to Earth. [WB 138]
M Gliese 433 (2) 09.79 29.8 ± 0.1 0044.21 Red dwarf with 2 exoplanets. [WB 139]
D Luyten's Star (2) 09.9 12.20 ± 0.04 0018.1 Faint red dwarf with 2 exoplanets. [WB 140]
[WB 141]
D Gliese 176 (1) 09.95 30.7 ± 0.2 0045.54 Red dwarf with 1 exoplanet. [WB 142]
J Wolf 1061 (3) 10.07 14.04 ± 0.03 0020.83 Red dwarf with 3 exoplanets. [WB 143]
J GJ 625 (1) 10.17 21.3 ± 0.1 0031.6 Red dwarf with 1 exoplanet. [WB 144]
S TRAPPIST-1 (7) 10.29 39.6 ± 0.4 0058.75 Red dwarf with 7 exoplanets, all in orbit closer than Mercury to the Sun. [WB 145]
S Gliese 849 (2) 10.42 28.80 ± 0.08 0042.72 Red dwarf with 2 exoplanets. [WB 146]
J Gliese 581 (3, 2 p) 10.56 20.56 ± 0.05 0030.5 Red dwarf with 3 confirmed and 2 possible exoplanets. [WB 147]
M Gliese 436 (1) 10.67 31.80 ± 0.10 0047.1 Red dwarf with 1 exoplanet. [WB 148]
D Gliese 180 (2) 10.89 40.3 ± 1.0 0059.79 Red dwarf with 2 exoplanets. [WB 149]
M Ross 128 (1) 11.13 11.03 ± 0.02 0016.36 Faint red dwarf with exoplanet. [WB 150]
[WB 151]
J HIP 79431 (1) 11.33 47 ± 2 0069.7 Single star with 1 exoplanet. [WB 152]
AN HIP 57050 (1) 11.95 35.9 ± 0.2 0053.2 Red dwarf with 1 exoplanet. [WB 153]
D Gliese 179 (1) 11.96 40 ± 2 0059.3 Single star with 1 exoplanet. [WB 154]
M Gliese 317 (1, 1 p) 11.98 49.9 ± 0.4 0074 Red dwarf with 1 exoplanet confirmed and a second suspected. [WB 155]
D YZ Ceti (3, 1 p) 12.03-12.18 12.0 ± 0.4 0017.8 3 exoplanets confirmed, 4th suspected. [WB 156]
D LHS 1723 (2) 12.2 17.4 ± 0.1 0025.82 Faint red dwarf with 2 exoplanets. [WB 157]
J Gliese 1214 (1) 14.71 47.5 ± 0.4 0070.4 Red dwarf with 1 exoplanet. [WB 158]
AS Large Magellanic Cloud 00.9 163,000 ? The 3rd-closest galaxy to the Milky Way in the constellations of Dorado and Mensa. [WB 159]
S Andromeda Galaxy 03.44 2,540,000 ? The nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way in the constellation of Andromeda. [WB 160]
D Comet of 1472 ? ? ? Comet visible from Christmas day 1471 until March 1, 1472. The comet is notable as observed by 15th-century astronomers, during a time of rapid progress in planetary theory, shortly before the Copernican Revolution. Observed by Regiomontanus, who tried to estimate its distance from Earth, using parallax. [WB 161]
M Great Comet of 1556 ? ? ? Comet visible from February 1556 until March, studied by Cornelius Gemma, Paul Fabricius and Helisaeus Roeslin. [WB 162]
V Tycho's Supernova -04 ? ? Supernova occurring from November 2, 1572 until 1574, studied by Tycho Brahe and named after him. At peak apparent magnitude, the supernova was brighter than Jupiter. [12]
[WB 163]
D Great Comet of 1577 ? ? ? Comet visible from November 13, 1577 until January 26, 1578, studied by Tycho Brahe. [WB 164]
V Kepler's Supernova -02.25 to -2.5 ? ? Supernova occurring from October 9, 1604 until next autumn of 1605, studied by Johannes Kepler and named after him. He published De Stella nova in pede Serpentarii (1606) about it which led to a dispute with Lodovico delle Colombe, who observed the supernova first, and Helisaeus Roeslin. [WB 165]


Researchers referred to in the TYCHOS book
Sys Name
Main proponents in bold
Centuries Description Chapters Notes
T Simon Shack 21st Author of TYCHOS. [T 47]
T Tycho Brahe 16/17th Danish astronomer responsible for the development of the Tychonian model, upon which the TYCHOS is based. Preface, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 18, 26, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36 [WR 1]
H Hipparchus -2nd Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician, is considered the founder of trigonometry but is most famous for his incidental discovery of precession of the equinoxes. 30, 32, 36 [T 35]
[WR 2]
U Sosigenes of Alexandria -1st Greek astronomer from Ptolemaic Egypt who, according to Roman historian Pliny the Elder, was consulted by Julius Caesar for the design of the Julian calendar. 32 [WR 3]
G Ptolemy 2nd Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer and astrologer responsible for the development of the geocentric model. 6, 18, 27, 30, 36 [WR 4]
G Aztec astronomy 15th< Archaeoastronomy of the Aztec, central Mexico. Preface, 27, 32 [T 22]
[WR 5]
G Maya astronomy 15th< Archaeoastronomy of the Maya, Yucatán, Mexico and Guatemala. Their advanced calendar contained the synodic period for Venus and the different Emperical Synodic Intervals for Mars. Preface, 6, 32, 33 [T 8][T 2]
[WR 6]
T Nilakantha Somayaji 15/16th Indian mathematician and astronomer of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. One of his most influential works was the comprehensive astronomical treatise Tantrasamgraha completed in 1501. Preface, 2 [T 48]
[WR 7]
T Longomontanus 16/17th Danish astronomer who really developed Tycho's geoheliocentric model empirically and publicly to common acceptance in the 17th century in his 1622 astronomical tables. He published the voluminous Astronomia Danica (1622), regarded as the testament of Tycho Brahe. Preface, 5, 12 [WR 8]
H Nicolaus Copernicus 16th Polish/Prussian mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe. The publication of Copernicus' model in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium in 1543 was a major event in the history of science, triggering the Copernican Revolution. Preface, 5, 6, 18, 35, 36, Epilogue [WR 9]
H Galileo Galilei 16/17th Italian polymath, central figure in the transition from natural philosophy to modern science and transformation of the scientific Renaissance into a scientific revolution. Galileo's championing of heliocentrism and Copernicanism was controversial during his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system. Preface, 12 [WR 10]
H Johannes Kepler 17th German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer, best known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy, provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation. Preface, 5, 6, 11, 20, 26, Epilogue [WR 11]
H Giovanni Cassini 17th Italian mathematician, astronomer and engineer. Discoverer of 4 moons of Saturn. 36 [WR 12]
U Giovanni Riccioli 17th Italian astronomer and Catholic priest in the Jesuit order. He is known, for his experiments with pendulums and with falling bodies, for his discussion of 126 arguments concerning the motion of the Earth, for describing the first binary star system and for introducing the current scheme of lunar nomenclature. 1 [WR 13]
T Cristoph Scheiner 17th German Jesuit priest, physicist and astronomer who discovered the changes in sunspots, published in 1630. 12 [T 15]
[WR 14]
H Isaac Newton 17/18th English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist, widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687), laid the foundations of classical mechanics. Preface, 4, 10, 28, Epilogue [WR 15]
U Ole Roemer 17th/18th Danish astronomer who in 1676 made the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light, persuaded the king to introduce the Gregorian calendar in Denmark-Norway — something Tycho Brahe had argued for in vain a hundred years earlier. 26 [WR 16]
H James Bradley 18th English astronomer and priest. Best known for two fundamental discoveries in astronomy, the aberration of light (1725–1728), and the nutation of the Earth's axis (1728–1748). Preface, 26, 34, Epilogue [T 10]
[WR 17]
T Pathani Samanta 19th Indian astronomer and scholar who measured the distance from earth with a bamboo pipe and many other traditional instruments that he built. His observations, research and calculations were compiled into a book Siddhanta Darpana. He reached the same conclusions as Tycho Brahe - yet also failed to envisage that Earth must logically have an orbit (both imagined Earth as an orbitless, immobile body). Preface, 2, 6 [T 2]
[WR 18]
H Friedrich Bessel 19th German astronomer, mathematician, physicist and geodesist. He was the first astronomer who determined reliable values for the distance from the sun to another star by the method of parallax. 36 [WR 19]
U Simon Newcomb 19th Canadian–American astronomer, applied mathematician and autodidactic polymath, made important contributions to timekeeping. 30, 36 [WR 20]
U Rudolf Steiner 19/20th Austrian philosopher, social reformer, architect and esotericist, founded an esoteric spiritual movement, anthroposophy, with roots in German idealist philosophy and theosophy; other influences include Goethean science and Rosicrucianism. Preface [WR 21]
H Albert Einstein 20th German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, awarded Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921. Preface, 3, 4, 6, 10, Epilogue [WR 22]
U John Knight Fotheringham 20th British historian who was an expert on ancient astronomy and chronology. He established the chronology of the Babylonian dynasties. 30 [WR 23]
U Robert Russell Newton 20th American physicist, astronomer, and historian of science, known for his work on change of the rotation rate of the Earth, and historical observations of eclipses. 30 [WR 24]
U Vittorio Goretti 20th Italian amateur astronomer and a discoverer of minor planets, discovered 32 main-belt asteroids. 36 [WR 25]
U Theodor Landscheidt 20th German author, astrologer and amateur climatologist. 13 [T 49]
[WR 26]
T Karl-Heinz Homann 20th/21st German electronic technician. 33 [T 50]
T Howard Margolis 20th/21st American social scientist. His study of social theory focused on the underpinnings of individual choice and judgment that shape aggregate social outcomes. 1 [T 51]
[WR 27]
T James Schombert 20th/21st American astrophysicist (1984, Yale), Fields of research: Galaxy Surveys, Evolution and Properties of Galaxies. 1 [T 52]
T Walter Cruttenden 20th/21st American amateur theoretical archaeo-astronomer and author of the binary theory of precession. 1, 18, 24, 30, 33 [T 53]
U Anthony Ayiomamitis 21st Greek astrophotographer. 26 [15]
T Christopher Graney 21st American professor of physics and astronomy. Preface, 5 [16]

Celestial Models

Historical overview of several historical Celestial Models:

Flat and Hollow Earthers
Celestial Models and their researchers
Sys Name
Main proponents in bold
Centuries Description Chapters Notes
F Anaxagoras -5th Greek philosopher and scientist whose observations of the celestial bodies and the fall of meteorites led him to form new theories of the universal order, and to a putative prediction of the impact of a meteorite in 467. He attempted to give a scientific account of eclipses, meteors, rainbows, and the sun, which he described as a mass of blazing metal, larger than the Peloponnese. The heavenly bodies, he asserted, were masses of stone torn from the Earth and ignited by rapid rotation. He was the first to give a correct explanation of eclipses, and was both famous and notorious for his scientific theories, including the claims that the Sun is a mass of red-hot metal, that the Moon is earthy, and that the stars are fiery stones. He thought the earth was flat and floated supported by 'strong' air under it and disturbances in this air sometimes caused earthquakes. [WR 28]
G Aristotle -4th Greek philosopher and scientist, considered the "Father of Western Philosophy". [WR 29]
G Heraclides Ponticus -4th Greek philosopher and astronomer, incorrectly named the father of heliocentrism. [WR 30]
G Theophrastus -3rd Greek biologist and physicist, student of Aristotle. Published Heaven. [WR 31]
G Eratosthenes -3rd Greek mathematician, geographer, astronomer, invented the discipline of geography, best known for being the first person to calculate the circumference of the Earth and also the first to calculate the tilt of the Earth's axis. He may have accurately calculated the distance from the Earth to the Sun and invented the leap day, created the first map of the world, incorporating parallels and meridians. He also calculated the Sun's diameter at about 27 times that of the Earth, in reality it is approximately 109 times. [WR 32]
H Aristarchus of Samos -3rd Greek astronomer and mathematician, the father of heliocentrism, suspected the stars were other suns that are very far away, and that in consequence there was no observable parallax; movement of the stars relative to each other as the Earth moves around the Sun. [WR 33]
H Seleucus of Seleucia -2nd Mesopotamian astronomer and philosopher, proponent of heliocentrism, the first to assume the universe to be infinite. [WR 34]
T Macrobius 4th/5th Roman writer who presented a discourse upon the nature of the cosmos, transmitting much classical philosophy to the later Middle Ages. In astronomy, this work is noted for giving the diameter of the Sun as twice the diameter of the Earth. [WR 35]
T Martianus Capella 5th Latin prose writer of Late Antiquity, one of the earliest developers of the system of the seven liberal arts that structured early medieval education. His single encyclopedic work was De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii. [WR 36]
G Aryabhata 5th/6th Indian mathematician and astronomer. He ascribed the apparent motions of the heavens to the Earth's rotation. He may have believed that the planet's orbits as elliptical rather than circular. Aryabhata correctly insisted that the Earth rotates about its axis daily, and that the apparent movement of the stars is a relative motion caused by the rotation of the Earth, contrary to the then-prevailing view, that the sky rotated. He described a geocentric model of the solar system, in which the Sun and Moon are each carried by epicycles. They in turn revolve around the Earth. In this model, the motions of the planets are each governed by two epicycles, smaller and larger. The order of the planets in terms of distance from Earth is taken as: the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the asterisms. [WR 37]
G Al-Battani 9th/10th Arab astronomer, astrologer, and mathematician. He introduced a number of trigonometric relations, and his Kitāb az-Zīj was frequently quoted by many medieval astronomers, including Copernicus. He was able to correct some of Ptolemy's results and compiled new tables of the Sun and Moon, long accepted as authoritative. Some of his measurements were even more accurate than ones taken by Copernicus many centuries later. Al-Battānī discovered that the direction of the Sun's apogee, as recorded by Ptolemy, was changing. Copernicus quoted him in the book that initiated the Copernican Revolution, the De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, where his name is mentioned no fewer than 23 times, and also mentioned in the Commentariolus. Al-Battānī was frequently quoted by Tycho Brahe, Riccioli, among others. Kepler and Galileo showed interest in some of his observations. [WR 38]
G Azophi 10th Persian astronomer who identified the Large Magellanic Cloud and made the earliest recorded observation of the Andromeda Galaxy, the first galaxies other than the Milky Way to be observed from Earth. He observed that the ecliptic plane is inclined with respect to the celestial equator and more accurately calculated the length of the tropical year. He observed and described the stars, their positions, their magnitudes and their colour. For each constellation, he provided two drawings, one from the outside of a celestial globe, and the other from the inside (as seen from the Earth). [WR 39]
G Alhazen 10th/11th Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist, honored as Ptolemaeus secundus, kept a geocentric universe and assumed that celestial motions are uniformly circular, which required the inclusion of epicycles to explain observed motion, published in The Model of the Motions of Each of the Seven Planets (~1038). [WR 40]
G Avicenna 11th Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age. He claimed to have observed Venus as a spot on the Sun, there was a transit on May 24, 1032, to help establish that Venus was, at least sometimes, below the Sun in Ptolemaic cosmology, i.e. the sphere of Venus comes before the sphere of the Sun when moving out from the Earth in the prevailing geocentric model. He considered the motion of the solar apogee, which Ptolemy had taken to be fixed. [WR 41]
G Avempace 11th Arab Andalusian polymath, astronomer, physicist and philosopher. He published a theory in which the motion of the stars and planets is uniform and circular, and in agreement with observation. [WR 42]
G Averroes 12th Andalusian Moorish polymath, philosopher, mathematician and astronomer. Popularized the work of Aristotle. [WR 43]
G Al Shirazi 13th Persian polymath, astronomer, mathematician and physicist. Followed up on Ptolemy and in The Limit of Accomplishment concerning Knowledge of the Heavens discussed the possibility of heliocentrism. [WR 44]
H Shirazi
G Tusi 13th Persian polymath, astronomer, mathematician, physicist and theologian. His model for the planetary system is believed to be the most advanced of his time, and was used extensively until the development of the heliocentric model in the time of Nicolaus Copernicus. Between Ptolemy and Copernicus, he is considered by many to be one of the most eminent astronomers of his time. [WR 45]
G Ulugh Beg 15th Persian astronomer and mathematician, built an enormous observatory, similar to Tycho Brahe's later Uraniborg. Using it, he compiled the 1437 Zij-i-Sultani of 994 stars, considered the greatest star catalogue between those of Ptolemy and Brahe. He determined the length of the sidereal year as 365.2570370...d = 365d 6h 10m 8s (an error of +58 seconds) and a more precise value of tropical year as 365d 5h 49m 15s, which has an error of +25 seconds, making it more accurate than Copernicus's estimate. He determined the Earth's axial tilt as 23;30,17 degrees (23.5047 degrees). [WR 46]
G Muisca astronomy 15th< Archaeoastronomy of the Muisca, Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Colombia. [WR 47]
H Regiomontanus 15th German mathematician and astronomer who formulated a theory of heliocentrism. Copernicus lists him as an inspiration. He observed the Comet of 1472 and tried to estimate its distance from Earth, using the angle of parallax. [WR 48]
G Taki 16th Ottoman engineer, astronomer, mathematician and physicist. Taki's method of finding coordinates of stars was reportedly more precise than those of his contemporaries, Tycho Brahe and Nicolas Copernicus. Brahe is thought to have been aware of Taqi ad-Din's work. [WR 49]
G Erasmus Reinhold 16th German astronomer and mathematician, considered to be the most influential astronomical pedagogue of his generation. Reinhold knew about Copernicus and his heliocentric ideas prior to the publication of De revolutionibis and made a favourable reference to him in his commentary on Purbach. However, Reinhold (like other astronomers before Kepler and Galileo) translated Copernicus' mathematical methods back into a geocentric system, rejecting heliocentric cosmology on physical and theological grounds. In Reinhold's unpublished commentary on De revolutionibus, he calculated the distance from the Earth to the sun. He "massaged" his calculation method in order to arrive at an answer close to that of Ptolemy. [WR 50]
G Julius Caesar Scaliger 16th Italian scholar and physician, who influenced Kepler, though he rejected the discoveries of Copernicus. He was guided by Aristotle in metaphysics and in natural history. Leibniz and William Hamilton recognized him as the best modern exponent of the physics and metaphysics of Aristotle. [WR 51]
H Christian Wurstisen 16th Swiss mathematician, theologician and historian. The second edition of Nicolaus Copernicus's De revolutionibus orbium coelestium had been printed in Basel. Wurstisen is credited to have first introduced Copernicus' work to Galileo Galilei, while Galilei's adoption of heliocentrism was often attributed to Michael Maestlin. Christian Wurstisen is mentioned by name in Galileo's Dialogue. This attribution has been challenged, however, and another similarly named man, Christopher Wursteisen, has been credited with introducing Copernicus's theories to Padua. [WR 52]
H Thomas Digges 16th English mathematician and astronomer, translated Copernicus' work in English. He attempted to determine the parallax of the 1572 supernova observed by Tycho Brahe, and concluded it had to be beyond the orbit of the Moon. This contradicted the accepted view of the universe, according to which no change could take place among the fixed stars. [WR 53]
H Christoph Rothmann 16th German mathematician and astronomer. [WR 54]
T Valentin Naboth 16th German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, author of a general textbook on astrology Enarratio elementorum astrologiae. Renowned for calculating the mean annual motion of the Sun, his writings are chiefly devoted to commenting upon Ptolemy and the Arabian astrologers. [WR 55]
T Paul Wittich 16th German mathematician and astronomer, who may have inspired Tycho Brahe for his Tychonic system. He may have been influenced by Valentin Naboth's book Primarum de coelo et terra in adopting the Capellan system to explain the motion of the inferior planets. It is evident from Wittich's diagram of his Capellan system that the Martian orbit does not intersect the solar orbit nor those of Mercury and Venus. [WR 56]
T Francesco Maurolico 16th Sicilian mathematician and astronomer, sighted the supernova that appeared in Cassiopeia in 1572, known as Tycho's Supernova of 1574. His De Sphaera Liber Unus (1575) contains a fierce attack against Copernicus' heliocentrism, in which Maurolico writes that Copernicus "deserved a whip or a scourge rather than a refutation". [WR 57]
T Nicolaus Reimers 16th German mathematician and astronomer to Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II. [WR 58]
G Christopher Clavius 16th/17th German Jesuit mathematician and astronomer. [WR 59]
G Giovanni Antonio Magini 16th/17th Italian astronomer, astrologer, cartographer, and mathematician. In 1588 he was chosen over Galileo Galilei to occupy the chair of mathematics at the University of Bologna. Magini supported a geocentric system of the world, in preference to Copernicus's heliocentric system. Magini devised his own planetary theory, in preference to other existing ones. The Maginian System consisted of eleven rotating spheres, which he described in his Novæ cœlestium orbium theoricæ congruentes cum observationibus N. Copernici (1589). He corresponded with Tycho Brahe, Clavius, Abraham Ortelius, and Johann Kepler. [WR 60]
G David Gans 16th/17th Jewish-German chronicler, mathematician, historian, astronomer and astrologer. He settled about 1564 in Prague, where he came into contact with Kepler and Tycho Brahe, and took part for three consecutive days in astronomical observations at the Prague observatory. He also carried on a scientific correspondence with Regiomontanus, and was charged by Tycho Brahe with the translation of the Alfonsine Tables from Hebrew into German. Although acquainted with the work of Copernicus, Gans followed the Ptolemaic system, attributing the Copernican system to the Pythagoreans. [WR 61]
G Johannes van Heeck 16th/17th Dutch physician, naturalist, alchemist and astrologer. After traveling through Europe, he settled in Prague at the court of Emperor Rudolf II, who had been patron to Tycho Brahe until his death in 1601, and at the time of van Heeck's arrival, was still patron to Johan Kepler. Both Lodovico delle Colombe and Kepler published their accounts of Kepler's Supernova (1604) in 1606. Van Heeck was ready to publish before them, sending his manuscript of De Nova Stella Disputatio ('Discussion of the New Star') to Federico Cesi in Rome in January 1605. Using techniques developed by Tycho Brahe, he concluded that the supernova showed no sign of parallax, meaning it must have been located among the 'fixed' stars of the firmament. He agreed with Tycho Brahe, however he reconciled this conclusion with the Aristotelian model. Cesi greatly esteemed Kepler, and therefore edited van Heeck's text, removing anything hostile to him or to other astronomers. He also removed much of the defence of the Aristotelian cosmology, as it was important for the Accademia to align itself to new astronomical discoveries. Van Heeck was furious at these editorial changes. [WR 62]
H Michael Maestlin 16th/17th German astronomer and mathematician, known for being the mentor of Johannes Kepler. Although he primarily taught the traditional geocentric Ptolemaic view of the solar system, Maestlin was also one of the first to accept and teach the heliocentric Copernican view. Maestlin corresponded with Kepler frequently and played a sizable part in his adoption of the Copernican system. Galileo Galilei's adoption of heliocentrism was also attributed to Maestlin. He observed the Great Comet of 1577, as did Tycho Brahe and Helisaeus Roeslin, as well as described the occultation of Mars by Venus on 13 October 1590. [WR 63]
H Christoph Grienberger 16th/17th Austrian Jesuit astronomer who supported Galilei. [WR 64]
H Odo van Maelcote 16th/17th Southern-Dutch (Belgian) Jesuit astronomer and mathematician who supported Galilei. [WR 65]
[WR 66]
[WR 67]
G Giuseppe 16th/17th Italian Jesuit astronomer, mathematician and selenographer. Very much opposed to the Copernican model. [WR 68]
T Biancani
T Johannes Praetorius 16th/17th German mathematician and astronomer. [WR 69]
T Helisaeus Roeslin 16th/17th German physician and astrologer who adopted a geoheliocentric model of the universe. He was one of five observers who concluded that the Great Comet of 1577 was located beyond the Moon. Roeslin had known Johannes Kepler since their student days and was one of his correspondents. Roeslin placed more emphasis on astrological predictions than did Kepler, and though he respected Kepler as a mathematician, he rejected some of Kepler's cosmological principles, including Copernican theory. [WR 70]
T Simon Marius 16th/17th German astronomer, who in 1614 published his work Mundus Iovialis describing the planet Jupiter and its moons. He discovered the planet's four major moons some days before Galileo Galilei. Marius concluded that the geocentric Tychonic system, in which the planets circle the Sun while the Sun circles the Earth, must be the correct world system, or model of the universe. [18]
[WR 71]
H David Fabricius 16th/17th Jewish-German pastor and astronomer who corresponded with Kepler, discovered the first variable star in 1596 and with his son Johannes sunspots independently from Galilei. Besides these two discoveries, little else is known about David Fabricius except his unusual manner of death: after denouncing a local goose thief from the pulpit, the accused man struck him in the head with a shovel and killed him. [WR 72]
H Johannes Fabricius 17th Jewish-German astronomer who with his father David discovered sunspots independently from Galilei. He produced the first publication of sunspots. [WR 73]
H Christiaan Huygens 17th Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution. Inventor of the telescope and discoverer of Titan, largest moon of Saturn, published in Systema saturnium in 1659. [WR 74]
H Johannes Hevelius 17th Polish-Lithuanian astronomer who described the rotation of sunspots, described new constellations, discovered the Moon's libration and was the first to describe comets as in a parabolic path around the Sun. [WR 75]
H Robert Hooke 17th English natural philosopher, architect and polymath, who tried to measure the distance to stars and was an early observer of the rings of Saturn, discovered one of the first observed double-star systems, Gamma Arietis, in 1664. Famous for Hooke's law. [WR 76]
T/U? Willebrord Snellius 17th Dutch astronomer and mathematician, who has met Tycho Brahe and Kepler and was not convinced of the Copernican model. In 1615, he estimated the circumference of the Earth at 38,653 km, actually 40,075 kilometers, so Snellius underestimated the circumference of the earth by 3.5%. Famous for his rediscovery of the law of refraction (1621), known as Snell's law. [WR 77]
H Edmond Halley 17th/18th English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist. Computed the orbit of Halley's comet. He was a Hollow Earther. [WR 78]
H Johann Gabriel 18th German mathematician, astronomer, and cartographer who produced side-by-side maps of the Copernican and Tychonian models with a preference for the former. [WR 79]
T Doppelmayr
H Charles Messier 18th French astronomer most notable for publishing an astronomical catalogue consisting of nebulae and star clusters that came to be known as the 110 "Messier objects". [WR 80]
H Anders Celsius 18th Swedish astronomer, physicist and mathematician, who first made the connection between the aurora borealis with magnetism, established the Earth is flattened spheroid and became the father of the Celsius temperature scale. [WR 81]
H Giuseppe Piazzi 18th/19th Italian priest, mathematician and astronomer who discovered dwarf planet Ceres. [WR 82]
H Barnaba Oriani 18th/19th Italian priest, geodesist and astronomer who described the obliquity of the ecliptic and orbital theory, his greatest achievement was his detailed research of the planet Uranus, calculating its orbital properties, not on a parabolic orbit but rather in a roughly circular orbit, he calculated the orbit in 1783. In 1789, Oriani improved his calculations by accounting for the gravitational effects of Jupiter and Saturn. [WR 83]
H Eise Eisinga 18th/19th Frisian amateur astronomer who built the oldest-existing functioning planetarium in the world. [WR 84]
H Pierre-Simon Laplace 18th/19th French mathematician, physicist and astronomer who believed in the aether, but returned to Newton's gravitational theory. Considered the "Newton of France". [WR 85]
H William Herschel 18th/19th German-English astronomer who improved determination of the rotation period of Mars, the discovery that the Martian polar caps vary seasonally, the discovery of the moons of Uranus Titania and Oberon and Enceladus and Mimas of Saturn. In addition, Herschel discovered infrared radiation. [WR 86]
F Samuel Rowbotham 19th English inventor of the Flat Earth Idea. [G 1]
H John Herschel 19th English polymath, mathematician, astronomer, chemist, inventor, and experimental photographer. He originated the use of the Julian day system in astronomy and named seven moons of Saturn and four moons of Uranus. Involved in the Beavers on the Moon astronomy hoax. [WR 87]
H James South 19th British astronomer who together with John Herschel produced a catalogue of 380 double stars in 1824, reobserving many of the double stars that had been discovered by William Herschel. He observed another 458 double stars over the following year. [WR 88]
H Friedrich von Struve 19th German-Russian astronomer and geodesist, discovered a very large number of double stars and in 1827 published his double star catalogue Catalogus novus stellarum duplicium. He was also the first to measure the parallax of Vega. [WR 89]
H Angelo Secchi 19th Italian Jesuit astronomer, one of the first scientists to state authoritatively that the Sun is a star, revised Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve's catalog of double stars, compiling data for over 10,000 binaries, discovered three comets, and drew some of the first color illustrations of Mars, the first to describe "channels" (canali) on the surface. He observed and made drawings of solar eruptions and sunspots, and compiled records of sunspot activity, proved that the solar corona and coronal prominences observed during a solar eclipse were part of the Sun, and not artifacts of the eclipse and discovered solar spicules. [WR 90]
H Urbain Le Verrier 19th French mathematician who predicted the location of Neptune. [WR 91]
H Johann Gottfried Galle 19th German astronomer who discovered Neptune. [WR 92]
H William Lassell 19th English merchant and astronomer who discovered Triton, the largest moon of Neptune, co-discovered Hyperion, a moon of Saturn and Ariel and Umbriel, two moons of Uranus. [WR 93]
H Asaph Hall 19th American astronomer who discovered Phobos and Deimos, the moons of Mars. [WR 94]
H Clyde Tombaugh 20th American astronomer who discovered (now dwarf-) planet Pluto. [WR 95]
H Gerard Kuiper 20th Dutch-American astronomer who discovered Miranda, moon of Uranus and Nereid, moon of Neptune. The Kuiper Belt is named after him. Was involved in "selecting landing sites for the Apollo program". [WR 96]

See also



  1. TYCHOS.info
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Clues Chronicle 25 - TYCHOS
  3. 3.0 3.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 1
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 TYCHOS - Chapter 35
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 TYCHOS - Chapter 7
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 TYCHOS - Chapter 9
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 TYCHOS - Chapter 36
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 TYCHOS - Chapter 6
  9. Adaptive Optics
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 TYCHOS - Chapter 34
  11. 11.0 11.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 28
  12. TYCHOS - Chapter 8
  13. TYCHOS - Chapter 18
  14. 14.0 14.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 22
  15. 15.0 15.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 12
  16. 16.0 16.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 11
  17. TYCHOS - Chapter 15
  18. TYCHOS - Chapter 20
  19. 19.0 19.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 26
  20. TYCHOS - Chapter 25
  21. 21.0 21.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 16
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 TYCHOS - Chapter 27
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 TYCHOS - Chapter 24
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.5 24.6 TYCHOS - Chapter 31
  25. 25.0 25.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 23
  26. 26.0 26.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 32
  27. TYCHOS - Chapter 33
  28. TYCHOS - Chapter 17
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 TYCHOS - Chapter 19
  30. 30.0 30.1 TYCHOS - Preface
  31. TYCHOS - Chapter 5
  32. 32.0 32.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 21
  33. Tychosium 2D
  34. Tychosium 3D demo by Patrix
  35. 35.0 35.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 30
  36. Cluesforum - Parallax and skies throughout the year
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 37.3 37.4 37.5 Thunderbolts.info - The TYCHOS: our geoaxial binary system
  38. Animation of Mercury around the Sun
  39. TYCHOS - Chapter 10
  40. Animation of Venus around the Sun
  41. Animation of Mars around the Sun
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 42.3 42.4 TYCHOS - Chapter 29
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 43.4 TYCHOS - Chapter 3
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 44.4 44.5 44.6 TYCHOS - Chapter 14
  45. TYCHOS - Chapter 4
  46. TYCHOS - Epilogue
  47. TYCHOS - about the author
  48. TYCHOS - Chapter 2
  49. TYCHOS - Chapter 13
  50. Karl-Heinz Homann
  51. Howard Margolis (1998)
  52. James Schombert
  53. Walter Cruttenden


Terms in Wikipedia

Celestial bodies in Wikipedia

  1. List of nearest bright stars
  2. Earth
  3. Sun
  4. Moon
  5. Mercury
  6. Venus
  7. Mars
  8. Jupiter
  9. Saturn
  10. Uranus
  11. Neptune
  12. Pluto
  13. Phobos
  14. Deimos
  15. Ganymede
  16. Io
  17. Europa
  18. Callisto
  19. Titan
  20. Iapetus
  21. Rhea
  22. Tethys
  23. Dione
  24. Enceladus
  25. Mimas
  26. Triton
  27. Titania
  28. Oberon
  29. Ariel
  30. Umbriel
  31. Miranda
  32. Main Asteroid Belt
  33. Kuiper Belt
  34. Sirius
  35. Vega
  36. Fomalhaut
  37. Fomalhaut b
  38. Deneb
  39. Alpha Centauri
  40. Proxima Centauri
  41. Proxima Centauri b
  42. Regulus
  43. Polaris
  44. Gamma Draconis
  45. Delta Capricorni
  46. Tau Ceti
  47. Thuban
  48. Epsilon Eridani
  49. Beta Pictoris
  50. 61 Cygni
  51. 55 Cancri
  52. 55 Cancri c
  53. Barnard's Star
  54. Canopus
  55. Arcturus
  56. Capella
  57. Rigel
  58. Procyon
  59. Betelgeuse
  60. Achernar
  61. Beta Centauri
  62. Altair
  63. Alpha Crucis
  64. Aldebaran
  65. Antares
  66. Spica
  67. Pollux
  68. Pollux b
  69. Mimosa
  70. Bellatrix
  71. Pleiades
  72. Gamma Crucis
  73. Alnilam
  74. Alnitak
  75. Alioth
  76. Dubhe
  77. Alkaid
  78. Castor
  79. Mizar
  80. Saiph
  81. Denebola
  82. Algol
  83. Mintaka
  84. Merak
  85. Phecda
  86. Alderamin
  87. Eta Boötis
  88. Gamma Virginis
  89. Beta Hydri
  90. Tabit
  91. Gamma Cephei
  92. Tadmor
  93. Megrez
  94. Mu Herculis
  95. Eta Cassiopeiae
  96. Delta Eridani
  97. Delta Pavonis
  98. Chi Draconis
  99. Gamma Leporis
  100. Beta Virginis
  101. Upsilon Andromedae
  102. 70 Ophiuchi
  103. 82 G. Eridani
  104. 10 Tauri
  105. 40 Eridani
  106. Tau Boötis
  107. Sigma Draconis
  108. Xi Boötis
  109. 61 Virginis
  110. Epsilon Indi
  111. 66 G. Centauri
  112. Chalawan
  113. 36 Ophiuchi
  114. Cervantes
  115. HD 176051
  116. 62 G. Scorpii
  117. 51 Pegasi
  118. Gliese 570
  119. Gliese 777
  120. Gliese 785
  121. Gliese 892
  122. Nu2 Lupi
  123. 54 Piscium
  124. Gliese 667
  125. HD 38858
  126. HD 69830
  127. Gliese 86
  128. HD 40307
  129. HD 85512
  130. Gliese 832
  131. Kapteyn's Star
  132. Kapteyn b
  133. HD 113538
  134. Gliese 687
  135. Gliese 674
  136. Gliese 649
  137. DT Virginis
  138. V1054 Ophiuchi
  139. Gliese 433
  140. Luyten's Star
  141. Luyten b
  142. Gliese 176
  143. Wolf 1061
  144. GJ 625
  145. TRAPPIST-1
  146. Gliese 849
  147. Gliese 581
  148. Gliese 436
  149. Gliese 180
  150. Ross 128
  151. Ross 128 b
  152. HIP 79431
  153. HIP 57050
  154. Gliese 179
  155. Gliese 317
  156. YZ Ceti
  157. LHS 1723
  158. Gliese 1214
  159. Large Magellanic Cloud
  160. Andromeda Galaxy
  161. Comet_of_1472
  162. Great Comet of 1556
  163. Tycho's Supernova
  164. Great Comet of 1577
  165. Kepler's Supernova

Researchers in Wikipedia

  1. Tycho Brahe
  2. Hipparchus
  3. Sosigenes of Alexandria
  4. Ptolemy
  5. Aztec calendar
  6. Maya astronomy
  7. Nilakantha Somayaji
  8. Longomontanus
  9. Nicolaus Copernicus
  10. Galileo Galilei
  11. Johannes Kepler
  12. Giovanni Cassini
  13. Giovanni Riccioli
  14. Cristoph Scheiner
  15. Isaac Newton
  16. Ole Roemer
  17. James Bradley
  18. Pathani Samanta
  19. Friedrich Bessel
  20. Simon Newcomb
  21. Rudolf Steiner
  22. Albert Einstein
  23. John Knight Fotheringham
  24. Robert Russell Newton
  25. Vittorio Goretti
  26. Theodor Landscheidt
  27. Howard Margolis
  28. Anaxagoras
  29. Aristotle
  30. Heraclides Pontius
  31. Theophrastus
  32. Eratosthenes
  33. Aristarchus of Samos
  34. Seleucus of Seleucia
  35. Macrobius
  36. Martianus Capella
  37. Aryabhata
  38. Al_Battani
  39. Azophi
  40. Alhazen
  41. Avicenna
  42. Avempace
  43. Averroes
  44. Al Shirazi
  45. Tusi
  46. Ulugh Beg
  47. Muisca astronomy
  48. Regiomontanus
  49. Taki
  50. Erasmus Reinhold
  51. Julius Caesar Scaliger
  52. Christian Wurstisen
  53. Thomas Digges
  54. Christoph Rothmann
  55. Valentin Naboth
  56. Paul Wittich
  57. Francesco Maurolico
  58. Nicolaus Reimers
  59. Christopher Clavius
  60. Giovanni Antonio Magini
  61. David Gans
  62. Johannes van Heeck
  63. Michael Maestlin
  64. Christoph Grienberger
  65. Odo van Maelcote (it)
  66. Odo van Maelcote (fr)
  67. Odo van Maelcote (de)
  68. Giuseppe Biancani
  69. Johannes Praetorius
  70. Helisaeus Roeslin
  71. Simon Marius
  72. David Fabricius
  73. Johannes Fabricius
  74. Christiaan Huygens
  75. Johannes Hevelius
  76. Robert Hooke
  77. Willebrord Snellius
  78. Edmond Halley
  79. Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr
  80. Charles Messier
  81. Anders Celsius
  82. Giuseppe Piazzi
  83. Barnaba Oriani
  84. Eise Eisinga
  85. Pierre-Simon Laplace
  86. William Herschel
  87. John Herschel
  88. James South
  89. Friedrich von Struve
  90. Angelo Secchi
  91. Urbain Le Verrier
  92. Johann Gottfried Galle
  93. William Lassell
  94. Asaph Hall
  95. Clyde Tombaugh
  96. Gerard Kuiper

Gaia's views

Other links

External links



Galileo affair