List of historical maps

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Frisland on a map by Gerardus Mercator (1623)

This is an incomplete, work in progress list of historical maps serving as a basis for further research and analysis of the maps in more detail. Some of the entries in this list may be regarded as "fake", others may be really from the year the mainstream says they are and others may be a mixture. The purpose of this list is not to jump to conclusions but to list observations and peculiarities with these maps.[AC 1][AC 2]

Included in the list below are observations on 5 elements; Arctic land, Antarctica, Australia, "Frisland" and Tartaria.

  • Arctic land ("Hyperborea") appears in many of the maps, either as islands, as continuation of Canada, Scandinavia or Russia or as a continuous landmass
  • Antarctica in some of the maps is depicted as a continuous landmass, in others as connected to Australia and in others completely missing
  • Australia appears in different forms too, even predating the "official" years of discovery (Abel Tasman, 1642) or colonization (Cook, 1778)
  • "Frisland" is a phantom island shown on many of the maps. According to mainstream history, this island was "invented" by Venetian Nicolò Zeno in 1558, who claimed he had maps and logs by one of his ancestors, another Nicolò Zeno, who "discovered" the Americas around 1380. What is interesting though is that this phantom "Frisland" (written in various spellings) also is present on maps and globes before the year 1558. On the other hand, in some of the maps dated to the period in which this phantom island was commonly placed on maps (approximately 1560-1660), it is not shown.[ab 1][RE 1]
  • Tartaria is a popular internet meme of 2018-19 and is named as such on many of the maps, with different placements from west of the Urals to what we now call Siberia. Also here it is interesting to see the differences between the maps.


Y Shown on map
N Not shown on map
- Not observable/outside of map scope
1 First mention in official history
X Mismatch with official history
A Australia and Antarctica connected
No Wikipedia article
Long timespan between publication and (re)discovery/(re)publication
Arc = Arctic, Ant = Antarctica, Aus = Australia, Fri = "Frisland", Tar = Tartaria
Year disc. = Year of (re)discovery, Time = Time in years between year of publication and (re)discovery
Year Author(s) Nationality Type Year
Time Map name Arc Ant Aus Fri Tar Author link Map link Map image Research Remarks
1415 De Virga, Albertinus Venetian Map lost De Virga world map Y N Y - - [WP 1] [WP 2]
Lost with Heidelberg family late 1930s?
1450 Mauro, Fra Venetian Map Fra Mauro map Y - - - - [WP 3] [WP 4]
Fra Mauro name used for Apollo 14 landing site.
1490~ Hammer, Heinrich Nuremberg Map 1960s 470~ "Map of the world of Christopher Columbus" N - - N Y [WP 5]
Henricus Martellus - Map of the world - 1489 - Yale archive.jpg
[AC 2] Held by Yale "Voynich / Skull&Bones" University. Rediscovered in 1960s?
1492 Behaim, Martin Nuremberg Globe Erdapfel Y N N - - [WP 6] [WP 7]
Carte behaim.JPG
Creation-early 16th century in Nuremberg town hall. Afterwards held by Behaim family. In 1907, transferred to Germanic Museum, Nuremberg.
1500 De la Cosa, Juan Castilian Map Map of Juan de la Cosa - N N N - [WP 8] [WP 9]
1500 map by Juan de la Cosa rotated.jpg
[ab 2] Juan de la Cosa = "John of the Thing"
1502~ Cantino, Alberto Portuguese Map 1859 357 Cantino planisphere - N N X - [WP 10] [WP 11]
Cantino planisphere (1502).jpg
[ab 2]
[AC 2]
Found in a butcher's store (1859). Frisland appears 56 years before invention.
1504 anonymous ? Map King-Hamy Planisphere N N N N N [WP 12]
King-Hamy map.jpg
Scotland is an island.
1504~ Maggiolo, Vesconte Genovese Map Vesconte Maggiolo map (1504/1516) - N - N - [WP 13]
Vesconte Maggiolo. World chart, from eastern coasts of America to India. PORTOLAN CHART. Naples, 1516.jpg
[RE 2] Wikipedia dates it to 1516.
1506 Contarini, Giovanni Venetian Map Contarini-Rosselli map N - N N - [WP 14] [WP 15]
Contarini map.jpg
[ab 2]
[AC 2]
Only 1 surviving copy.
Rosselli, Francesco Firenzan [WP 16]
1506~ De Caveri, Nicolò Genovese Map Caverio map - N N N Y [WP 17] [WP 18]
Caverio Map circa 1506.jpg
[RE 2]
[AC 2]
N-American east coast drawn with surprising accuracy, before Ponce de León (1512/1513). Looks authentic though.
1507 Waldseemüller, Martin Lovingian Map Universalis Cosmographia N N N N Y [WP 19] [WP 20]
Waldseemuller map 2.jpg
[AC 2] First map with "America". South America = "invented province". Tartaria W of Urals.
1507 Ruysch, Johannes Dutch Map Ruysch planisphere Y - - N Y [WP 21] [WP 22]
Ruysch map.jpg
[AC 2] North America as part of Asia. Tartaria far north.
1508 Rosselli, Francisco Firenzan Map ' Y Y N N N [WP 16]
[AC 2] Antarctica and Arctic land shown. Tartaria not shown.
1510 anonymous ? Globe 1855 345 Hunt-Lenox Globe N N N N N [WP 23]
Lenox Globe (2) Britannica.png
Origins unknown pre-2013. Purchased 1855 by Richard Hunt. Earliest article from 1879.
1510 anonymous ? Globe 1870s 360~ Globus Jagellonicus N N N X Y [WP 24]
[AC 2] Ridiculous map; fantasy islands. "America" in Indian Ocean. Frisland appears. "Rediscovered" in 1870s.
1511 Sylvanus, Bernardo Venetian Map Sylvanus planisphere N N N N N [WP 25]
Sylvanus map 1511.jpg
[RE 3] Showing none of the speculative lands, nor naming Tartaria.
1513 Reis, Piri Ottoman Map 1929 416 Piri Reis map - Y - - - [WP 26] [WP 27]
Piri reis world map 01.jpg
[ab 2]
[AC 1]
[AC 2]
Famous map showing Antarctica. "Lost" for 416 years??
1520 Coppo, Pietro Venetian Map De toto orbe N - - N Y [WP 28]
Map is a joke (Scandinavia, India, fantasy isles).
1522 Fries, Lorenz Alsatian Map Tabu. Nova Orbis N - - N Y [WP 29]
Fries worldmap 1522.jpg
No speculative lands, Tartaria E of Urals.
1525~ García de Toreno, Nuno Andalusian? Map Salviati Planisphere N N N N - [WP 30]
Salviati Planisphere.jpg
No speculative lands.
1527/29 Ribeiro, Diogo Portuguese Map 1887 360 Padrón Real N N N - N [WP 31] [WP 32]
Map Diego Ribero 1529.jpg
First scientific map, constantly updated. Frisland appears? Tartaria not named. Version of ~1887??
1531 Maggiolo, Vesconte Genovese Map Vesconte Maggiolo map (1531) - N N N - [WP 13] [MS 1] map image 1st map with New York.
1531 Finé, Oronce French Map Nova et Integra Universi Orbis Descriptio Y Y N N Y [WP 33]
Doppelherzförmige Weltkarte 1531.jpg
Arctic land; 4 islands. Antarctica huge.
1536 Finé, Oronce French Map Nova Universi Orbis Descriptio Y Y N N - [WP 33]
Arctic land; 4 islands. Antarctica huge.
1542 Rotz, Jean French Map Mappemonde N A A N - [WP 34]
Jean rotz.jpg
Mediterranean well done. Scandinavia & South America a joke. Phantom island in Indian Ocean. Australia & Antarctica already there.
1551 Mercator, Gerardus Flemish Map ' Y Y N X N [WP 35]
World Map on Double Cordiform Projection WDL6766.png
[AC 2] No Australia. Antarctica. Frisland 7 years before Zeno.
1558 Zeno, Nicolò Venetian Map 1793 235 Zeno map - - - 1 - [WP 36] [WP 37]
Map by nicolo zeno 1558.jpg
[ab 1]
[AC 1]
[AC 2]
Alleged invention of "Frisland". Admitted fakery of 1380s "original". Map "reproduction" in 1793.
1562 Gutiérrez, Diego Spanish Map Americae Sive Quartae Orbis Partis Nova Et Exactissima Descriptio - Y - - - [WP 38] [WP 39]
1562 Americæ Gutiérrez.JPG
First map naming "California".
1569 Mercator, Gerardus Flemish Map Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad Usum Navigantium Emendate Accommodata Y A A Y Y [WP 35] [WP 40]
Mercator 1569 world map composite.jpg
Australia and Antarctica connect, 18 years before no Australia.
1570 Ortelius, Abraham Flemish Map Theatrum Orbis Terrarium Y A A Y Y [WP 41] [WP 42]
Japan is a joke. Tartaria around Urals.
1602 Ricci, Matteo Urbinese Map Kunyu Wanguo Quantu Y A A Y - [WP 43] [WP 44]
Kunyu Wanguo Quantu (坤輿萬國全圖).jpg
[ab 2] Italy is a joke. Jesuit cartographer.
1612 Gherrijtsz. van Assum, Hessel Dutch Map ' N A A Y Y [WP 45]
Hessel Gerritsz - Worldmap of 1612 including the discovery of La Austrialia del Espiritu Santo by Pedro Fernandes de Queirós.png
Australia connected with Antarctica. Frisland. Tartaria spans Urals.
1622 Gherrijtsz. van Assum, Hessel Dutch Map ' Y A A - - [WP 45]
Hessel Gerritsz Pacific 1622.jpg
Australia connected with Antarctica only in inset, no Antarctica on main map. Arctic now land, 10 yrs later.
1674 Verbiest, Ferdinand Flemish Map Kunyu Quantu Y Y Y Y - [WP 46] [WP 47]
Kunyu Quantu of Ferdinand Verbiest 1674.jpg
[ab 2] Animals in Antarctica.
1695 Valck, Gerard Dutch Map Novus Planiglobii Terrestris per Utrumque Polum Conspectus N N Y N Y [WP 48] [MS 2]
1672 95 Novus Planiglobii Valck'.jpg
[ab 2] No Artic land. Antarctica. Australia partly. Tartaria E of Urals.
1744 Crophius, Martin Gottfried Augsburg Map Planisphaerium coeleste Y Y Y Y Y [MS 3]
Planisphaerium coeleste. A.C. Seutter delin. Andr. Silbereisen Sculps (world map 1744).jpg
Geocentric (Ptolemean) worldview.
Lotter, Tobias Conrad Augsburg [WP 49]
Silbereisen, Andreas Bavarian [MS 4]
[MS 5]
Seutter, Albrecht Carl Augsburg [MS 6]
Seutter, Mattäus Augsburg [WP 50]
Weyerman, Jacob Campo Dutch [WP 51]



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