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I didn't have time, Pompeii.jpg
Type 1 Archeology
Type 2 Forgery
Type 3 Myth creation
Years 79 AD (allegedly)
1631 (eruption Vesuvio)
1709-38 (excavations)
Dates 24 August or 24 October
Place South of Naples
Italy & Spanish Empire
Perps King Charles III of Spain,
Emmanuel Maurice (1700s)
Benito Mussolini (1923-44)
Podcasts FAC 611 - Hidden Histories
Research Research
Mainstream Mainstream
Fomenko Fomenko

Note: this topic is subject to on-going research, which means conclusions and ideas change quickly based on new sources of information
See also Date of destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum

Pompeii and Herculaneum are allegedly Roman era archeological sites in southern Italy. They are located near the Tyrrhenian coast, south of Naples. According to mainstream historiography, the towns were destroyed by the 79 AD large Plinian (the origin of the name) volcanic eruption of Mount Vesuvius, Europe's most active volcano.[W 1][W 2]

The sites were discovered "by accident" between 1709 (Herculaneum) and 1738, when two palaces were built which would later host the artifacts found at the sites. Following the War of the Spanish Succession between the Bourbon and Habsburg families, the Kingdom of Naples changed rule to the Habsburgs (1711-1735), after which king Charles III of Spain became the ruler of Naples. He together with his wife ordered the construction of various buildings around the time. The couple was involved in the construction of villas with sculptors, painters and other builders, and they were on site for decades.

Emmanuel Maurice bought property around 1709 after there were discovered some marbles and started excavating until he left for France in 1716. He is not supposed to have met Charles but it is mentioned that the couple had seen his Villa in 1738.

Convicts, slaves and children were used in the excavation of Herculaneum and Pompeii.


Pompeii & Herculaneum
Pompeii Herculaneum
Chapters Pompeii & Herculaneum
00 Eruptions of Vesuvius
01 Date of destruction
02 Discovery
03 Excavation history
04 Conclusions & ideas

79 AD
  • the alleged eruption could not have destroyed the cities if we have multiple maps of the 16th and 17th centuries where both Pompeii and Herculaneum are shown
  • only 1 witness account of this eruption exists, that by Pliny the Younger (the origin of the term Plinian eruption)
    • his account is not convincing
16 December 1631
  • "Heavy eruption of Vesuvius, featured on lots of drawings and in a few books"
  • the account by Mascuoli (1633) about the eruption of Vesuvio in 1631 describe the destruction of Herculaneum and Pompey by some kind of flow, alleged to have happened in 79 AD
    • the description itself is convincing for the destruction of the two towns
    • various sources have described this account as describing those of 79 AD, or at least "very similar"
  • according to historical documents, Herculaneum was discovered by accident in 1709
  • after Emmanuel went to France in 1716 the excavations were "stopped for almost 20 years"
  • A work of Isaac Newtons "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended" challenges the then accepted chronology that was (and still is) essentially based on an interpretation of the Bible
  • king Charles III of Spain (ruling for just 3 years) saw the villa of Emmanuel Maurice and where so impressed they wanted to build a palace near the location.
  • in 1738 the finds were made public with the convenient construction of not one, but two palaces and a third already existing one
  • the most important finds in the "Theater of Herculaneum" were "discovered" at just 600 m from what later became the main museum, the Palazzo ....
  • Emmanuel Maurice marries the 30 years junior Innocentia ..., an "immensely wealthy" woman
  • family in law involved with Habsburgs and Bourbon families
  • Emmanuel Maurice is made Duke of Elbeuf
  • Habsburg rule in HRE, Bourbon rule in Spain/Naples
  • Napoleon-Naples
Priape in Casa dei Vettii
  • Charles (who?) visits Pompeii with his kids and is "appalled" by the naked art
  • Under direction of Giuseppe Fiorelli, the director of the excavations, the first plaster casts are made in Pompeii, allegedly reconstructing the bodies by pouring plaster in air pockets that where left by human (or animal) remains.
  • the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini were very important in the "restoration" of Herculaneum to "in an attempt to recreate the glory of the Roman empire".[M 1]
  • bombing of Pompeii during World War II by Allied forces, allegedly 163 bombs were dropped.
  • After the war, many of the structures were rebuilt
  • Russian mathemathician Anatoly T. Fomenko in his book: "The Issue with Chronology" casts serious doubts on the dating of the ruins writing that "Pompeii might have been destroyed and buried by ashes during the well-known eruption of the Vesuvius that occurred in 1500 or even by the eruption of 1631.
  • Dipl.-Ing. (TU) Andreas Tschurilow, Deggendorf, Bavaria, Germany publishes a book "Features of the Domenico Fontana’s Water Conduit (the Canal of Count Sarno) and the Date of Pompeii Destruction" arguing for a destruction date of 1631
  • First cast allegedly made of a horse in Pompeii.
  • Photos from this cast differ quite a lot across publications, for example in some of the photos it has an ear.

[M 2] [M 3] [M 4] [M 5]

Leon Battista Alberti

"During this time he studied the ancient ruins, which excited his interest in architecture and strongly influenced the form of the buildings that he designed

He distinguished himself as a writer while he was still a child at school, and by the age of twenty had written a play which was successfully passed off as a genuine piece of Classical literature.

In 1452, he completed De re aedificatoria,[W 4] a treatise on architecture, using as its basis the work of Vitruvius and influenced by [or influenced the faking of?] the archaeological remains of Rome. The work was not published until 1485.

De re aedificatoria remained the classic treatise on architecture from the 16th until the 18th century.[no ref given]"

Bombing in WWII (1943) and reconstruction

  • In 1943 during World War II, 163 bombs were dropped by Allied forces. *"After the war, many of the structures were rebuilt with the help of an American and British team of experts. The renovation of Pompeii started in 1944 and continued for more than 15 years."
  • On this site you can compare the photos from before and after the reconstructioncompare photos of WWII and today

Benito Mussolini (1923-44)

Views by Anatoly Fomenko

Erotic art

Sometime in the "re"construction of Pompeii, many murals explicitly depicting sexual acts were added. An account from 1819 speaks about the "appalling" images. If that testimony is credible, the murals must have been made before 1819, and probably after 1709, when the excavations "were halted for almost 20 years".

  • Where does this come from?
    • Hypothesis Gaia: "The time of Marquis De Sade, French-Savoy, was the "1960s of history"; late 1700s"
    • Erotic art must have been very specific to an age and thus typifies when this overprinting was done; compare: Making black versions of originally white historical figures in Hollywood movies today

Hypothesis matrix

Hypotheses about the destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum
Event/claim/piece of evidence Mainstream Seneca Gaia Dr. Fomenko
Eruption of Vesuvius - Herculaneum 79 AD 1631 1631 1631
Eruption of Vesuvius - Pompeii 79 AD 1694 1694 1631
Death of Pliny the Elder 79 AD ... 1482 ...
Testimony by Pliny the Younger 79 AD ... 1631 ...
Construction styles "Roman" & reconstructions ... Non-Roman;
the Roman era seems more like a fashion of the Renaissance time than a historical period
At least 4 construction styles recognized;
A - round basalt cobbles with cement
B - horizontal "tile bricks" with other methods
C - angular limestone (?) clasts in wall
D - crazy columns
Excavation history 1709+ ... 1709-38 (faking the whole Roman shebang)
1738-48 (promoting the thing; Maurice)
1780s? (adding erotic art and other things)
1865+ (faking more under Unified Italy)
1923-43 (faking more to promote the Roman Empire narrative by Mussolini)
1944 (faking even more by "reconstruction" after WWII bombings)
1950s (matching the "Roman" finds in London; see Bloomberg tablets and 1946 - Dead Sea Scrolls)
21st century (faking more and more)
"Roman" or not? yes ? no no
Further research 1 - Geologic comparison of "79" and 1631 eruptions
2 - Wider scope of the "Roman" era
3 - Dr. Fomenko's views
4 - When was the erotic art added and under whom?

See also



Other research


Other mainstream

Bibliography and further reading

1600 Huaynaputina eruption


Construction styles