Difference between revisions of "TYCHOS glossary"

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Revision as of 23:33, 16 April 2018

Animation of a binary star system

This is a glossary of terms, celestial bodies and researchers mentioned in and related to the TYCHOS book, first published by Simon Shack on March 21st, 2018.[T 1]

Terms

Note: mainstream definition is listed, the TYCHOS redefines certain terms

Mainstream terms used in the TYCHOS book
Term Description Chapters
bold in detail
Notes
binary star/binary system a binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter. These systems, especially when more distant, often appear to the unaided eye as a single point of light, and are then revealed as multiple by other means. 1, 3, 4, 5, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 27, 28 [T 2]
[WPT 1]
apparent magnitude a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. The brighter an object appears, the lower its magnitude value (i.e. inverse relation). 35 [T 3]
[WPT 2]
astronomical unit (AU) a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun. However, that distance varies as Earth orbits the Sun, from a maximum (aphelion) to a minimum (perihelion) and back again once a year. Originally conceived as the average of Earth's aphelion and perihelion, it was defined exactly as 149,597,870,700 metres or about 150 million kilometres (93 million miles) since 2012. 5, 15, 17, 26, 32, 33, 36 [WPT 3]
light-year (ly) a unit of length used to express astronomical distances and measures about 9.5 trillion kilometres or 5.9 trillion miles. As defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), a light-year is the distance that light travels in vacuum in one Julian year (365.25 days). 35 [T 3]
[WPT 4]
parsec (pc) a unit of length used to measure large distances to astronomical objects outside the Solar System. A parsec was defined as the distance at which one astronomical unit subtends an angle of one arcsecond, but it was redefined in 2015 to exactly 648000 / π astronomical units. One parsec is equal to about 3.26 light-years (30 trillion km or 19 trillion miles) in length. 35 [T 3]
[WPT 5]
right ascension (RA) [WPT 6]
declination (DECL) [WPT 7]
perigee [WPT 8]
apogee [WPT 8]
perihelion [WPT 9]
aphelion [WPT 9]
equinox [WPT 10]
solstice [WPT 11]
conjunction (inferior/superior) [WPT 12]
prograde in our Solar System, all of the planets and most of the other objects that orbit the Sun, with the exception of many comets, do so in the "prograde" direction, i.e. the same sense as the rotation of the Sun. In addition, the rotations of most planets are prograde. 7, 9 [T 4][T 5]
[WPT 13]
retrograde motion that is contrary to the rotation of the primary, that is, the object that forms the system's hub. Rotation is determined with respect to an inertial frame of reference, such as distant fixed stars. 7, 9 [T 4][T 5]
[WPT 13]
proper motion the astronomical measure of the observed changes in the apparent places of stars or other celestial objects in the sky, as seen from the center of mass of the Solar System, compared to the abstract background of the more distant stars. 36 [T 6]
[WPT 14]
radial velocity the rate of change of the distance between the object and the point. That is, the radial velocity is the component of the object's velocity that points in the direction of the radius connecting the object and the point. In astronomy, the point is usually taken to be the observer on Earth, so the radial velocity then denotes the speed with which the object moves away from or approaches the Earth. 36 [T 6]
[WPT 15]
adaptive optics a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effect of incoming wavefront distortions by deforming a mirror in order to compensate for the distortion. It is used in astronomical telescopes to remove the effects of atmospheric distortion. 1 [T 7]
[WPT 16]
Shack-Hartmann principle an optical instrument used for characterizing an imaging system. It is a wavefront sensor commonly used in adaptive optics systems. Shack–Hartmann sensors are used to characterize eyes for corneal treatment of complex refractive errors. 1 [T 2]
[WPT 17]
aberration of light an astronomical phenomenon which produces an apparent motion of celestial objects about their true positions, dependent on the velocity of the observer. Aberration causes objects to appear to be displaced towards the direction of motion of the observer compared to when the observer is stationary. 34 [T 8]
[WPT 18]
apparent retrograde motion the apparent motion of a planet in a direction opposite to that of other bodies within its system, as observed from a particular vantage point. Direct motion or prograde motion is motion in the same direction as other bodies. 5, 6, 7, 9 [WPT 19]
apsidal precession the precession (rotation) of the orbit of a celestial body. More precisely, it is the gradual rotation of the line joining the apsides of an orbit, which are the points of closest and farthest approach. 28 [T 9]
[WPT 20]
axial tilt the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane. 8 [T 10]
[WPT 21]
circumbinary a planet that orbits two stars instead of one. Because of the short orbits of some binary stars, the only way for planets to form is by forming outside the orbit of the two stars. 9, 14, 29 [T 5]
[WPT 22]
equinoctial precession a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body. In astronomy, precession refers to any of several slow changes in an astronomical body's rotational or orbital parameters. An important example is the steady change in the orientation of the axis of rotation of the Earth, known as the precession of the equinoxes. 18, 22 [T 11][T 12]
[WPT 23]
[WPT 24]
barycenter the center of mass of two or more bodies that are orbiting each other, which is the point around which they both orbit. 12 [T 13]
[WPT 25]
tidal locking occurs when the long-term interaction between a pair of co-orbiting astronomical bodies drives the rotation rates into a harmonic ratio with the orbital period. 11 [T 14]
[WPT 26]
orbital resonance occurs when orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually because their orbital periods are related by a ratio of small integers. Most commonly this relationship is found for a pair of objects. The physics principle behind orbital resonance is similar in concept to pushing a child on a swing, where the orbit and the swing both have a natural frequency, and the other body doing the "pushing" will act in periodic repetition to have a cumulative effect on the motion. Orbital resonances greatly enhance the mutual gravitational influence of the bodies, i.e. their ability to alter or constrain each other's orbits. 15, 20 [T 15][T 16]
[WPT 27]
analemma a diagram showing the variation of the position of the Sun in the sky over the course of a year, as viewed at a fixed time of day and from a fixed location on the Earth. 26 [T 17]
[WPT 28]
Equation of Time the discrepancy between two kinds of solar time. The word equation is used in the medieval sense of "reconcile a difference". The two times that differ are the apparent solar time, which directly tracks the diurnal motion of the Sun, and mean solar time, which tracks a theoretical mean Sun with noons 24 hours apart. 26 [T 17]
[WPT 29]
Sothic cycle a period of 1,461 Egyptian civil years of 365 days each or 1,460 Julian years averaging 365¼ days each. During a Sothic cycle, the 365-day year loses enough time that the start of its year once again coincides with the heliacal rising of the star Sirius on 19 July in the Julian calendar. 25, 33 [T 18]
[WPT 30]
Saros cycle a period of approximately 223 synodic months (approximately 6585.3211 days, or 18 years, 11 days, 8 hours), that can be used to predict eclipses of the Sun and Moon. One Saros cycle after an eclipse, the Sun, Earth, and Moon return to approximately the same relative geometry, a near straight line, and a nearly identical eclipse will occur, in what is referred to as an eclipse cycle. A sar is one half of a Saros cycle. 16 [T 19]
[WPT 31]
sidereal year the time taken by the Earth to orbit the Sun once with respect to the fixed stars. 24, 31 [T 20][T 21]
[WPT 32]
sidereal day approximately 23 hours, 56 minutes, 4.0905 SI seconds. The sidereal day is 0.0084 seconds shorter than Earth's period of rotation relative to the fixed stars. 23, 31 [T 22][T 21]
[WPT 33]
solar year/tropical year the time that the Sun takes to return to the same position in the cycle of seasons, as seen from Earth; for example, the time from vernal equinox to vernal equinox, or from summer solstice to summer solstice. 24, 31 [T 20][T 21]
[WPT 34]
solar day/civil day 23, 31 [T 22][T 21]
[WPT 35]
anomalistic year the time taken for the Earth to complete one revolution with respect to its apsides. Its average duration is 365.259636 days (365 d 6 h 13 min 52.6 s). 24, 31 [T 20][T 21]
[WPT 36]
leap second a one-second adjustment that is occasionally applied to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) in order to keep its time of day close to the mean solar time as realized by UT1. Without such a correction, time reckoned by Earth's rotation drifts away from atomic time because of irregularities in the Earth's rate of rotation. Since this system of correction was implemented in 1972, 27 leap seconds have been inserted, the most recent on December 31, 2016 at 23:59:60 UTC. 31 [T 21]
[WPT 37]
Julian calendar proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC was a reform of the Roman calendar and took effect on 1 January 45 BC, the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar in 1582. The Julian calendar gains against the mean tropical year at the rate of one day in 128 years. The difference in the average length of the year between Julian (365.25 days) and Gregorian (365.2425 days) is 0.002%. 32, 33 [T 23][T 24]
[WPT 38]
Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is internationally the most widely used civil calendar, named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582. It is considered a refinement to the Julian calendar, involving an approximately 0.002% correction in the length of the calendar year. The Julian calendar year was changed from 365.25 days (365 days 6 hours) to 365.2425 days (365 days 5 hours 49 minutes 12 seconds), a reduction of 10 minutes 48 seconds per year. 31 [T 21]
[WPT 39]
Milankovitch cycles the collective effects of changes in the Earth's movements on its climate over thousands of years. Hypothesized as variations in supposed eccentricity (100,000 and 413,000 years), presumed axial tilt (~41,000 year), and precession (TYCHOS Great Year) of the Earth's orbit resulted in cyclical variation in the solar radiation reaching the Earth, and that this orbital forcing strongly influenced climatic patterns on Earth. It is an important geological parameter. 17 [T 25]
[WPT 40]
Michelson-Morley experiment experiment performed between April and July, 1887 by Albert A. Michelson and Edward W. Morley in Cleveland, Ohio. It compared the speed of light in perpendicular directions, in an attempt to detect the relative motion of matter through the aether. The result was negative, in that the expected difference between the speed of light in the direction of movement through the presumed aether, and the speed at right angles, was found not to exist. 19 [T 26]
[WPT 41]
General Relativity (GR) the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics. 28 [T 9]
[WPT 42]
Binary Research Institute The Binary Research Institute was formed in 2001 to support and fund research regarding the hypothesis that the Sun is part of a binary star system. 1, 14, 18, 24, 30 [1]
NEAVE planetarium interactive sky map for exploring the stars and planets. 7, 8 [2]
SCOPE planetarium free online model of solar system and night sky. 7 [3]
Stellarium free open source planetarium for your computer. It shows a realistic sky in 3D, just like what you see with the naked eye, binoculars or a telescope. 7, 8 [4]
TYCHOS-specific terms used in the TYCHOS book
Term Description Chapters
bold in detail
Notes
TYCHOS a revised model of our solar system. Its basic orbital configuration is based on the semi-Tychonian model as defined by Longomontanus in his Astronomia Danica (1622), a monumental work regarded as Tycho Brahe’s “testament”. Although the semi-Tychonic and the TYCHOS models are geometrically similar, they significantly differ in that the latter assigns an orbit to Earth – whereas the former considers Earth as a motionless (albeit diurnally-rotating) celestial body. All [T 27]
[T 28]
Annual Constant of Precession (ACP) 16, 19, 20, 22, 24, 27, 30 [T 12]
Empiric Sidereal Interval (ESI) 6, 7, 10 [T 29]
geoptical 34 [T 8]
PVP orbit 19 [T 26]
PVP constant 19 [T 26]
True Mean Synodic Period (TMSP) 11, 17, 27 [T 30]
Tychosium 2D a bi-dimensional overhead view (as seen from above Earth's North Pole) of our Sun-Mars 'geoaxial' binary system. 21 [T 31][T 32]
Tychosium 3D 21 [T 31][T 33]
TYCHOS Great Year (TGY) 16, 30, 32 [T 19][T 34]
[T 23]

Celestial bodies

Note: bodies with a higher apparent magnitude than ~4 (city) or 6 (faintest) are not visible with the naked eye

Celestial bodies (not) mentioned in the TYCHOS book
Name App. magnitude Description Chapters
bold in detail
Notes
Earth Home. All [WPB 1]
Sun -26.74 Our star, accompanied by Mars in a binary system. All [WPB 2]
Moon -12.74 Moon of Earth. Preface, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 23, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 [T 30]
[WPB 3]
Mercury -2.6-5.7 Junior moon of the Sun. Preface, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 27, 28, Epilogue [T 35][T 36]
[WPB 4]
Venus -4.9 to -3.8 Senior moon of the Sun. 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 20, 27 [T 37][T 14]
[WPB 5]
Mars -3.0-1.6 Binary companion of the Sun. Preface, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 26, 27, 36, Epilogue [T 38]
[WPB 6]
Jupiter -2.94 to -1.6 P-type planet. 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 20, 26, 27, 29, 36 [T 39]
[WPB 7]
Saturn -0.24-1.47 P-type planet. 2, 3, 6, 9, 13, 15, 29, 35, 36 [T 39]
[WPB 8]
Uranus 5.32-5.9 P-type planet. 9, 13, 15, 29 [T 39]
[WPB 9]
Neptune 7.78-8.02 P-type planet. 9, 13, 15, 29 [T 39]
[WPB 10]
Pluto 13.65-16.3 P-type planet. 9, 15, 29 [T 39]
[WPB 11]
Phobos 11.8 Senior moon of Mars. 3, 5 [T 40]
[WPB 12]
Deimos 12.89 Junior moon of Mars. 3, 5 [T 40]
[WPB 13]
Ganymede 4.38-4.61 Largest Galilean moon of Jupiter. 3 [T 40]
[WPB 14]
Io 5.02 Innermost Galilean moon of Jupiter. 3, 26 [T 40]
[WPB 15]
Europa 5.29 Smallest Galilean moon of Jupiter. 3 [T 40]
[WPB 16]
Callisto 5.65 2nd-largest Galilean moon of Jupiter. [WPB 17]
Titan 8.2-9.0 Largest moon of Saturn. [WPB 18]
Iapetus 10.2-11.9 3rd-largest moon of Saturn. [WPB 19]
Rhea 10 2nd-largest moon of Saturn. [WPB 20]
Tethys 10.2 2nd-brightest moon of Saturn. [WPB 21]
Dione 10.4 3rd of inner moons of Saturn. [WPB 22]
Enceladus 11.7 6th-largest moon of Saturn. [WPB 23]
Mimas 12.9 Largest moon of Saturn. [WPB 24]
Triton 13.47 Largest moon of Neptune. [WPB 25]
Titania 13.9 Largest moon of Uranus. [WPB 26]
Oberon 14.1 2nd-largest moon of Uranus. [WPB 27]
Ariel 14.4 4th-largest moon of Uranus. [WPB 28]
Umbriel 14.5 3rd-largest moon of Uranus. [WPB 29]
Miranda 15.8 5th-largest moon of Uranus. [WPB 30]
Main Asteroid Belt Asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. 14 [T 41]
[WPB 31]
Kuiper Belt Kuiper object belt outside of orbit of Neptune. 14 [T 41]
[WPB 32]
Sirius -1.46 Brightest star in the night sky, binary system. 1, 3, 4, 6, 32, 33 [T 42]
[WPB 33]
Vega -0.02-0.07 5th-brightest star in the night sky. 5, 14, 19, 26, 36 [WPB 34]
Fomalhaut 1.16 18th-brightest star in the night sky. Binary star system with exoplanets, 2nd-brightest star with exoplanets, after Pollux. 14 [T 41]
[WPB 35]
Deneb 1.25 19th brightest star in the night sky. Distance estimated between 1500 and 3227 ly. 35 [T 3]
[WPB 36]
Alpha Centauri 1.33 Binary/triple star system, closest to Earth. Exoplanet found around Proxima Centauri. 1, 35, 36 [T 3]
[WPB 37]
Regulus 1.4 21st brightest star in the night sky. 4+ star system. Near ecliptic. 6 [T 29]
[WPB 38]
Polaris 1.86-2.13 North Star, binary system. Preface, 5, 8, 18, 19, 34, Epilogue [T 26]
[WPB 39]
Gamma Draconis 2.23 Brightest star of Draco. London Zenith Star. Used by James Bradley for the supposed aberration of light. May have a companion. Epilogue [T 43]
[WPB 40]
Delta Capricorni 2.81 Binary system. 7 [T 4]
[WPB 41]
Tau Ceti 3.5 Single star, possibly 5 exoplanets. 14 [T 41]
[WPB 42]
Thuban 3.65 PVP Pole Star over time. 19 [T 26]
[WPB 43]
Epsilon Eridani 3.74 Single star, exoplanet and asteroid belt supposed. 14 [T 41]
[WPB 44]
Beta Pictoris 3.86 Single star, exoplanet found. 14 [T 41]
[WPB 45]
61 Cygni 5.2 Binary star system, first star (system) where parallax was measured by Bessel. 36 [T 6]
[WPB 46]
V762 Cas 5.87 Farthest star visible with the naked eye at 14,825.61 ly (4545.45 Pc) (1997) or 2764.10 ly (847.46 Pc) (2007). 35 [T 3]
[5]
55 Cancri 5.95 Binary star system, 5 exoplanets found, 55 Cancri c named Brahe. 14 [T 41]
[WPB 47]
[WPB 48]
Barnard's Star 9.51 Wandering star, highest proper motion. Preface [T 27]
[WPB 49]
Canopus -0.74 2nd-brightest star in the night sky. [WPB 50]
Arcturus -0.05 4th-brightest star in the night sky. [WPB 51]
Capella 0.03-0.16 6th-brightest star in the night sky, double binary star system. [WPB 52]
Rigel 0.05-0.18 7th-brightest star in the night sky, brightest of Orion, 3 to 5 star system. [WPB 53]
Procyon 0.34 8th-brightest star in the night sky, binary system. [WPB 54]
Betelgeuse 0.0-1.3 9th-brightest star in the night sky, 2nd-brightest of Orion. [WPB 55]
Achernar 0.40-0.46 10th-brightest star in the night sky, binary system. [WPB 56]
Beta Centauri 0.61 11th-brightest star in the night sky. Triple star system. [WPB 57]
Altair 0.76 12th-brightest star in the night sky, breaking up? [WPB 58]
Alpha Crucis 0.76 13th-brightest star in the night sky. Multiple star system. [WPB 59]
Aldebaran 0.75-0.95 14th-brightest star in the night sky. Likely hosting exoplanets. [WPB 60]
Antares 0.6-1.6 15th-brightest star in the night sky. Likely largest known star. [WPB 61]
Spica 0.97-1.04 16th-brightest star in the night sky, binary system. [WPB 62]
Pollux 1.14 17th-brightest star in the night sky. Has the closest exoplanet to Earth. [WPB 63]
Mimosa 1.23-1.31 20th-brightest star in the night sky, binary system. [WPB 64]
Bellatrix 1.59-1.64 25th-brightest star in the night sky. Right shoulder of Orion (seen from Northern hemisphere, the left shoulder is Betelgeuse). [WPB 65]
Pleiades 1.6 Seven stars appearing close together. [WPB 66]
Gamma Crucis 1.64 Single star. [WPB 67]
Alnilam 1.69 Central star of Orion's Belt. Single star. [WPB 68]
Alnitak 1.77 Left star of Orion's Belt (seen from Northern hemisphere). Triple star system. [WPB 69]
Alioth 1.77 31st-brightest star in the night sky. Leftmost and brightest star of the Big Dipper. [WPB 70]
Dubhe 1.79 2nd-brightest star of the Big Dipper. Has a companion. [WPB 71]
Alkaid 1.86 3rd-brightest star of the Big Dipper. Single star. [WPB 72]
Castor 1.93 Triple star system. [WPB 73]
Mizar 2.04 4th-brightest star of the Big Dipper. Visual double star, part of quadruple system with Alcor. [WPB 74]
Saiph 2.09 Left foot of Orion (seen from Northern hemisphere, the right foot is Rigel). [WPB 75]
Algol 2.12-3.39 Triple star system. [WPB 76]
Mintaka 2.23 Right star of Orion's Belt (seen from Northern hemisphere). Multiple star system. [WPB 77]
Merak 2.37 5th-brightest star of the Big Dipper. Single star. [WPB 78]
Phecda 2.43 6th-brightest star of the Big Dipper. Astrometric binary. [WPB 79]
Alderamin 2.51 Pole Star over time. [WPB 80]
Megrez 3.31 7th-brightest (dimmest) star of the Big Dipper. Two companions. [WPB 81]
Tycho's Supernova -4 Supernova occurring from November 2, 1572 until 1574, studied by Tycho Brahe and named after him. At peak apparent magnitude, the supernova was brighter than Jupiter. [WPB 82]
Great Comet of 1577 ? Comet visible from November 13, 1577 until January 26, 1578, studied by Tycho Brahe. [WPB 83]
Large Magellanic Cloud 0.9 The 3rd-closest galaxy to the Milky Way in the constellations of Dorado and Mensa. [WPB 84]
Andromeda Galaxy 3.44 The nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way in the constellation of Andromeda. [WPB 85]

Researchers

Legend
Geocentrists
Heliocentrists
Tychonists
Unknown/uncertain
Researchers referred to in the TYCHOS book
Sys Name
Main proponents in bold
Centuries Description Chapters Notes
T Simon Shack 21st Author of TYCHOS. [T 44]
T Tycho Brahe 16/17th Danish astronomer responsible for the development of the Tychonian model, upon which the TYCHOS is based. Preface, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 18, 26, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36 [WPR 1]
H Hipparchus -2nd Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician, is considered the founder of trigonometry but is most famous for his incidental discovery of precession of the equinoxes. 30, 32, 36 [T 34]
[WPR 2]
U Sosigenes of Alexandria -1st Greek astronomer from Ptolemaic Egypt who, according to Roman historian Pliny the Elder, was consulted by Julius Caesar for the design of the Julian calendar. 32 [WPR 3]
G Ptolemy 2nd Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer and astrologer responsible for the development of the geocentric model. 6, 18, 27, 30, 36 [WPR 4]
G Aztec astronomy 15th< Archaeoastronomy of the Aztec, central Mexico. Preface, 27, 32 [T 30]
[WPR 5]
G Maya astronomy 15th< Archaeoastronomy of the Maya, Yucatán, Mexico and Guatemala. Preface, 6, 32, 33 [T 29]
[WPR 6]
T Nilakantha Somayaji 15/16th Indian mathematician and astronomer of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. One of his most influential works was the comprehensive astronomical treatise Tantrasamgraha completed in 1501. Preface, 2 [T 45]
[WPR 7]
T Longomontanus 16/17th Danish astronomer who really developed Tycho's geoheliocentric model empirically and publicly to common acceptance in the 17th century in his 1622 astronomical tables. He published the voluminous Astronomia Danica (1622), regarded as the testament of Tycho Brahe. Preface, 5, 12 [WPR 8]
H Nicolaus Copernicus 16th Polish/Prussian mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe. The publication of Copernicus' model in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium in 1543 was a major event in the history of science, triggering the Copernican Revolution. Preface, 5, 6, 18, 35, 36, Epilogue [WPR 9]
H Galileo Galilei 16/17th Italian polymath, central figure in the transition from natural philosophy to modern science and transformation of the scientific Renaissance into a scientific revolution. Galileo's championing of heliocentrism and Copernicanism was controversial during his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system. Preface, 12 [WPR 10]
H Johannes Kepler 17th German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer, best known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy, provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation. Preface, 5, 6, 11, 20, 26, Epilogue [WPR 11]
H Giovanni Cassini 17th Italian mathematician, astronomer and engineer. Discoverer of 4 moons of Saturn. 36 [WPR 12]
U Giovanni Riccioli 17th Italian astronomer and Catholic priest in the Jesuit order. He is known, for his experiments with pendulums and with falling bodies, for his discussion of 126 arguments concerning the motion of the Earth, for describing the first binary star system and for introducing the current scheme of lunar nomenclature. 1 [WPR 13]
T Cristoph Scheiner 17th German Jesuit priest, physicist and astronomer who discovered the changes in sunspots, published in 1630. 12 [T 13]
[WPR 14]
H Isaac Newton 17/18th English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist, widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687), laid the foundations of classical mechanics. Preface, 4, 10, 28, Epilogue [WPR 15]
U Ole Roemer 17th/18th Danish astronomer who in 1676 made the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light, persuaded the king to introduce the Gregorian calendar in Denmark-Norway — something Tycho Brahe had argued for in vain a hundred years earlier. 26 [WPR 16]
H James Bradley 18th English astronomer and priest. Best known for two fundamental discoveries in astronomy, the aberration of light (1725–1728), and the nutation of the Earth's axis (1728–1748). Preface, 26, 34, Epilogue [T 8]
[WPR 17]
T Pathani Samanta 19th Indian astronomer and scholar who measured the distance from earth with a bamboo pipe and many other traditional instruments that he built. His observations, research and calculations were compiled into a book Siddhanta Darpana. Preface, 2, 6 [WPR 18]
H Friedrich Bessel 19th German astronomer, mathematician, physicist and geodesist. He was the first astronomer who determined reliable values for the distance from the sun to another star by the method of parallax. 36 [WPR 19]
U Simon Newcomb 19th Canadian–American astronomer, applied mathematician and autodidactic polymath, made important contributions to timekeeping. 30, 36 [WPR 20]
U Rudolf Steiner 19/20th Austrian philosopher, social reformer, architect and esotericist, founded an esoteric spiritual movement, anthroposophy, with roots in German idealist philosophy and theosophy; other influences include Goethean science and Rosicrucianism. Preface [WPR 21]
H Albert Einstein 20th German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, awarded Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921. Preface, 3, 4, 6, 10, Epilogue [WPR 22]
U John Knight Fotheringham 20th British historian who was an expert on ancient astronomy and chronology. He established the chronology of the Babylonian dynasties. 30 [WPR 23]
U Robert Russell Newton 20th American physicist, astronomer, and historian of science, known for his work on change of the rotation rate of the Earth, and historical observations of eclipses. 30 [WPR 24]
U Vittorio Goretti 20th Italian amateur astronomer and a discoverer of minor planets, discovered 32 main-belt asteroids. 36 [WPR 25]
U Theodor Landscheidt 20th German author, astrologer and amateur climatologist. 13 [T 46]
[WPR 26]
T Karl-Heinz Homann 20th/21st German electronic technician. 33 [T 47]
T Howard Margolis 20th/21st American social scientist. His study of social theory focused on the underpinnings of individual choice and judgment that shape aggregate social outcomes. 1 [T 48]
[WPR 27]
T James Schombert 20th/21st American astrophysicist (1984, Yale), Fields of research: Galaxy Surveys, Evolution and Properties of Galaxies. 1 [T 49]
[6]
T Walter Cruttenden 20th/21st American amateur theoretical archaeo-astronomer and author of the binary theory of precession. 1, 18, 24, 30, 33 [T 50]
[7]
U Anthony Ayiomamitis 21st Greek astrophotographer. 26 [8]
T Christopher Graney 21st American professor of physics and astronomy. Preface, 5 [9]
[10]
Legend
Flat and Hollow Earthers
Geocentrists
Heliocentrists
Tychonists
Researchers not referred to in the TYCHOS book
Sys Name
Main proponents in bold
Centuries Description Chapters Notes
F Anaxagoras -5th Greek philosopher and scientist whose observations of the celestial bodies and the fall of meteorites led him to form new theories of the universal order, and to a putative prediction of the impact of a meteorite in 467. He attempted to give a scientific account of eclipses, meteors, rainbows, and the sun, which he described as a mass of blazing metal, larger than the Peloponnese. The heavenly bodies, he asserted, were masses of stone torn from the Earth and ignited by rapid rotation. He was the first to give a correct explanation of eclipses, and was both famous and notorious for his scientific theories, including the claims that the Sun is a mass of red-hot metal, that the Moon is earthy, and that the stars are fiery stones. He thought the earth was flat and floated supported by 'strong' air under it and disturbances in this air sometimes caused earthquakes. [WPR 28]
G Aristotle -4th Greek philosopher and scientist, considered the "Father of Western Philosophy". [WPR 29]
G Heraclides Ponticus -4th Greek philosopher and astronomer, incorrectly named the father of heliocentrism. [WPR 30]
G Theophrastus -3rd Greek biologist and physicist, student of Aristotle. Published Heaven. [WPR 31]
G Eratosthenes -3rd Greek mathematician, geographer, astronomer, invented the discipline of geography, best known for being the first person to calculate the circumference of the Earth and also the first to calculate the tilt of the Earth's axis. He may have accurately calculated the distance from the Earth to the Sun and invented the leap day, created the first map of the world, incorporating parallels and meridians. He also calculated the Sun's diameter at about 27 times that of the Earth, in reality it is approximately 109 times. [WPR 32]
H Aristarchus of Samos -3rd Greek astronomer and mathematician, the father of heliocentrism, suspected the stars were other suns that are very far away, and that in consequence there was no observable parallax; movement of the stars relative to each other as the Earth moves around the Sun. [WPR 33]
H Seleucus of Seleucia -2nd Mesopotamian astronomer and philosopher, proponent of heliocentrism, the first to assume the universe to be infinite. [WPR 34]
T Macrobius 4th/5th Roman writer who presented a discourse upon the nature of the cosmos, transmitting much classical philosophy to the later Middle Ages. In astronomy, this work is noted for giving the diameter of the Sun as twice the diameter of the Earth. [WPR 35]
T Martianus Capella 5th Latin prose writer of Late Antiquity, one of the earliest developers of the system of the seven liberal arts that structured early medieval education. His single encyclopedic work was De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii. [WPR 36]
G Aryabhata 5th/6th Indian mathematician and astronomer. He ascribed the apparent motions of the heavens to the Earth's rotation. He may have believed that the planet's orbits as elliptical rather than circular. Aryabhata correctly insisted that the Earth rotates about its axis daily, and that the apparent movement of the stars is a relative motion caused by the rotation of the Earth, contrary to the then-prevailing view, that the sky rotated. He described a geocentric model of the solar system, in which the Sun and Moon are each carried by epicycles. They in turn revolve around the Earth. In this model, the motions of the planets are each governed by two epicycles, smaller and larger. The order of the planets in terms of distance from Earth is taken as: the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the asterisms. [WPR 37]
G Azophi 10th Persian astronomer who identified the Large Magellanic Cloud and made the earliest recorded observation of the Andromeda Galaxy, the first galaxies other than the Milky Way to be observed from Earth. He observed that the ecliptic plane is inclined with respect to the celestial equator and more accurately calculated the length of the tropical year. He observed and described the stars, their positions, their magnitudes and their colour. For each constellation, he provided two drawings, one from the outside of a celestial globe, and the other from the inside (as seen from the Earth). [WPR 38]
G Alhazen 10th/11th Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist, honored as Ptolemaeus secundus, kept a geocentric universe and assumed that celestial motions are uniformly circular, which required the inclusion of epicycles to explain observed motion, published in The Model of the Motions of Each of the Seven Planets (~1038). [WPR 39]
G Avicenna 11th Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age. He claimed to have observed Venus as a spot on the Sun, there was a transit on May 24, 1032, to help establish that Venus was, at least sometimes, below the Sun in Ptolemaic cosmology, i.e. the sphere of Venus comes before the sphere of the Sun when moving out from the Earth in the prevailing geocentric model. He considered the motion of the solar apogee, which Ptolemy had taken to be fixed. [WPR 40]
G Avempace 11th Arab Andalusian polymath, astronomer, physicist and philosopher. He published a theory in which the motion of the stars and planets is uniform and circular, and in agreement with observation. [WPR 41]
G Averroes 12th Andalusian Moorish polymath, philosopher, mathematician and astronomer. Popularized the work of Aristotle. [WPR 42]
G Al 13th Persian polymath, astronomer, mathematician and physicist. Followed up on Ptolemy and in The Limit of Accomplishment concerning Knowledge of the Heavens discussed the possibility of heliocentrism. [WPR 43]
H Shirazi
G Ulugh Beg 15th Persian astronomer and mathematician, built an enormous observatory, similar to Tycho Brahe's later Uraniborg. Using it, he compiled the 1437 Zij-i-Sultani of 994 stars, considered the greatest star catalogue between those of Ptolemy and Brahe. He determined the length of the sidereal year as 365.2570370...d = 365d 6h 10m 8s (an error of +58 seconds) and a more precise value of tropical year as 365d 5h 49m 15s, which has an error of +25 seconds, making it more accurate than Copernicus's estimate. He determined the Earth's axial tilt as 23;30,17 degrees (23.5047 degrees). [WPR 44]
G Muisca astronomy 15th< Archaeoastronomy of the Muisca, Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Colombia. [WPR 45]
H Regiomontanus 15th German mathematician and astronomer who formulated a theory of heliocentrism. Copernicus lists him as an inspiration. He observed the comet of 1472 and tried to estimate its distance from Earth, using the angle of parallax. [WPR 46]
T Valentin Naboth 16th German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, author of a general textbook on astrology Enarratio elementorum astrologiae. Renowned for calculating the mean annual motion of the Sun, his writings are chiefly devoted to commenting upon Ptolemy and the Arabian astrologers. [WPR 47]
T Paul Wittich 16th German mathematician and astronomer, who may have inspired Tycho Brahe for his Tychonic system. He may have been influenced by Valentin Naboth's book Primarum de coelo et terra in adopting the Capellan system to explain the motion of the inferior planets. It is evident from Wittich's diagram of his Capellan system that the Martian orbit does not intersect the solar orbit nor those of Mercury and Venus. [WPR 48]
T Francesco Maurolico 16th Sicilian mathematician and astronomer, sighted the supernova that appeared in Cassiopeia in 1572, known as Tycho's Supernova of 1574. His De Sphaera Liber Unus (1575) contains a fierce attack against Copernicus' heliocentrism, in which Maurolico writes that Copernicus "deserved a whip or a scourge rather than a refutation". [WPR 49]
H Thomas Digges 16th English mathematician and astronomer, translated Copernicus' work in English. He attempted to determine the parallax of the 1572 supernova observed by Tycho Brahe, and concluded it had to be beyond the orbit of the Moon. This contradicted the accepted view of the universe, according to which no change could take place among the fixed stars. [WPR 50]
H Christoph Rothmann 16th German mathematician and astronomer. [WPR 51]
T Nicolaus Reimers 16th German mathematician and astronomer to Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II. [WPR 52]
G Christopher Clavius 16th/17th German Jesuit mathematician and astronomer. [WPR 53]
G Giovanni Antonio Magini 16th/17th Italian astronomer, astrologer, cartographer, and mathematician. In 1588 he was chosen over Galileo Galilei to occupy the chair of mathematics at the University of Bologna. Magini supported a geocentric system of the world, in preference to Copernicus's heliocentric system. Magini devised his own planetary theory, in preference to other existing ones. The Maginian System consisted of eleven rotating spheres, which he described in his Novæ cœlestium orbium theoricæ congruentes cum observationibus N. Copernici (1589). He corresponded with Tycho Brahe, Clavius, Abraham Ortelius, and Johann Kepler. [WPR 54]
H Christoph Grienberger 16th/17th Austrian Jesuit astronomer who supported Galilei. [WPR 55]
H Odo van Maelcote 16th/17th Southern-Dutch (Belgian) Jesuit astronomer and mathematician who supported Galilei. [WPR 56]
[WPR 57]
[WPR 58]
G Giuseppe 16th/17th Italian Jesuit astronomer, mathematician and selenographer. Very much opposed to the Copernican model. [WPR 59]
T Biancani
T Johannes Praetorius 16th/17th German mathematician and astronomer. [WPR 60]
T Simon Marius 16th/17th German astronomer, who in 1614 published his work Mundus Iovialis describing the planet Jupiter and its moons. He discovered the planet's four major moons some days before Galileo Galilei. Marius concluded that the geocentric Tychonic system, in which the planets circle the Sun while the Sun circles the Earth, must be the correct world system, or model of the universe. [WPR 61]
H David Fabricius 16th/17th Jewish-German pastor and astronomer who corresponded with Kepler, discovered the first variable star in 1596 and with his son Johannes sunspots independently from Galilei. Besides these two discoveries, little else is known about David Fabricius except his unusual manner of death: after denouncing a local goose thief from the pulpit, the accused man struck him in the head with a shovel and killed him. [WPR 62]
H Johannes Fabricius 17th Jewish-German astronomer who with his father David discovered sunspots independently from Galilei. He produced the first publication of sunspots. [WPR 63]
T/U? Willebrord Snellius 17th Dutch astronomer and mathematician, who has met Tycho Brahe and Kepler and was not convinced of the Copernican model. In 1615, he estimated the circumference of the Earth at 38,653 km, actually 40,075 kilometers, so Snellius underestimated the circumference of the earth by 3.5%. Famous for his rediscovery of the law of refraction (1621), known as Snell's law. [WPR 64]
H Christiaan Huygens 17th Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution. Inventor of the telescope and discoverer of Titan, largest moon of Saturn, published in Systema saturnium in 1659. [WPR 65]
H Johannes Hevelius 17th Polish-Lithuanian astronomer who described the rotation of sunspots, described new constellations, discovered the Moon's libration and was the first to describe comets as in a parabolic path around the Sun. [WPR 66]
H Robert Hooke 17th English natural philosopher, architect and polymath, who tried to measure the distance to stars and was an early observer of the rings of Saturn, discovered one of the first observed double-star systems, Gamma Arietis, in 1664. Famous for Hooke's law. [WPR 67]
H Edmond Halley 17th/18th English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist. Computed the orbit of Halley's comet. He was a Hollow Earther. [WPR 68]
H Johann Gabriel 18th German mathematician, astronomer, and cartographer who produced side-by-side maps of the Copernican and Tychonian models with a preference for the former. [WPR 69]
T Doppelmayr
H Charles Messier 18th French astronomer most notable for publishing an astronomical catalogue consisting of nebulae and star clusters that came to be known as the 110 "Messier objects". [WPR 70]
H Anders Celsius 18th Swedish astronomer, physicist and mathematician, who first made the connection between the aurora borealis with magnetism, established the Earth is flattened spheroid and became the father of the Celsius temperature scale. [WPR 71]
H Giuseppe Piazzi 18th/19th Italian priest, mathematician and astronomer who discovered dwarf planet Ceres. [WPR 72]
H Barnaba Oriani 18th/19th Italian priest, geodesist and astronomer who described the obliquity of the ecliptic and orbital theory, his greatest achievement was his detailed research of the planet Uranus, calculating its orbital properties, not on a parabolic orbit but rather in a roughly circular orbit, he calculated the orbit in 1783. In 1789, Oriani improved his calculations by accounting for the gravitational effects of Jupiter and Saturn. [WPR 73]
H Eise Eisinga 18th/19th Frisian amateur astronomer who built the oldest-existing functioning planetarium in the world. [WPR 74]
H Pierre-Simon Laplace 18th/19th French mathematician, physicist and astronomer who believed in the aether, but returned to Newton's gravitational theory. Considered the "Newton of France". [WPR 75]
H William Herschel 18th/19th German-English astronomer who improved determination of the rotation period of Mars, the discovery that the Martian polar caps vary seasonally, the discovery of the moons of Uranus Titania and Oberon and Enceladus and Mimas of Saturn. In addition, Herschel discovered infrared radiation. [WPR 76]
H John Herschel 19th English polymath, mathematician, astronomer, chemist, inventor, and experimental photographer. He originated the use of the Julian day system in astronomy and named seven moons of Saturn and four moons of Uranus. Involved in the Beavers on the Moon astronomy hoax. [WPR 77]
H James South 19th British astronomer who together with John Herschel produced a catalogue of 380 double stars in 1824, reobserving many of the double stars that had been discovered by William Herschel. He observed another 458 double stars over the following year. [WPR 78]
H Friedrich von Struve 19th German-Russian astronomer and geodesist, discovered a very large number of double stars and in 1827 published his double star catalogue Catalogus novus stellarum duplicium. He was also the first to measure the parallax of Vega. [WPR 79]
H Angelo Secchi 19th Italian Jesuit astronomer, one of the first scientists to state authoritatively that the Sun is a star, revised Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve's catalog of double stars, compiling data for over 10,000 binaries, discovered three comets, and drew some of the first color illustrations of Mars, the first to describe "channels" (canali) on the surface. He observed and made drawings of solar eruptions and sunspots, and compiled records of sunspot activity, proved that the solar corona and coronal prominences observed during a solar eclipse were part of the Sun, and not artifacts of the eclipse and discovered solar spicules. [WPR 80]
H Urbain Le Verrier 19th French mathematician who predicted the location of Neptune. [WPR 81]
H Johann Gottfried Galle 19th German astronomer who discovered Neptune. [WPR 82]
H William Lassell 19th English merchant and astronomer who discovered Triton, the largest moon of Neptune, co-discovered Hyperion, a moon of Saturn and Ariel and Umbriel, two moons of Uranus. [WPR 83]
H Asaph Hall 19th American astronomer who discovered Phobos and Deimos, the moons of Mars. [WPR 84]
H Clyde Tombaugh 20th American astronomer who discovered (now dwarf-) planet Pluto. [WPR 85]
H Gerard Kuiper 20th Dutch-American astronomer who discovered Miranda, moon of Uranus and Nereid, moon of Neptune. The Kuiper Belt is named after him. Was involved in "selecting landing sites for the Apollo program". [WPR 86]

See also

References

TYCHOS

  1. TYCHOS.info
  2. 2.0 2.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 1
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 TYCHOS - Chapter 35
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 TYCHOS - Chapter 7
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 TYCHOS - Chapter 9
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 TYCHOS - Chapter 36
  7. Adaptive Optics
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 TYCHOS - Chapter 34
  9. 9.0 9.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 28
  10. TYCHOS - Chapter 8
  11. TYCHOS - Chapter 18
  12. 12.0 12.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 22
  13. 13.0 13.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 12
  14. 14.0 14.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 11
  15. TYCHOS - Chapter 15
  16. TYCHOS - Chapter 20
  17. 17.0 17.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 26
  18. TYCHOS - Chapter 25
  19. 19.0 19.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 16
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 TYCHOS - Chapter 24
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 21.6 TYCHOS - Chapter 31
  22. 22.0 22.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 23
  23. 23.0 23.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 32
  24. TYCHOS - Chapter 33
  25. TYCHOS - Chapter 17
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 TYCHOS - Chapter 19
  27. 27.0 27.1 TYCHOS - Preface
  28. TYCHOS - Chapter 5
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 TYCHOS - Chapter 6
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 TYCHOS - Chapter 27
  31. 31.0 31.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 21
  32. Tychosium 2D
  33. Tychosium 3D demo
  34. 34.0 34.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 30
  35. Animation of Mercury around the Sun
  36. TYCHOS - Chapter 10
  37. Animation of Venus around the Sun
  38. Animation of Mars around the Sun
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 39.3 39.4 TYCHOS - Chapter 29
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 40.4 TYCHOS - Chapter 3
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 41.3 41.4 41.5 41.6 TYCHOS - Chapter 14
  42. TYCHOS - Chapter 4
  43. TYCHOS - Epilogue
  44. TYCHOS - about the author
  45. TYCHOS - Chapter 2
  46. TYCHOS - Chapter 13
  47. Karl-Heinz Homann
  48. Howard Margolis (1998)
  49. James Schombert
  50. Walter Cruttenden

Wikipedia

Terms

Celestial bodies

Researchers

  1. Tycho Brahe
  2. Hipparchus
  3. Sosigenes of Alexandria
  4. Ptolemy
  5. Aztec calendar
  6. Maya astronomy
  7. Nilakantha Somayaji
  8. Longomontanus
  9. Nicolaus Copernicus
  10. Galileo Galilei
  11. Johannes Kepler
  12. Giovanni Cassini
  13. Giovanni Riccioli
  14. Cristoph Scheiner
  15. Isaac Newton
  16. Ole Roemer
  17. James Bradley
  18. Pathani Samanta
  19. Friedrich Bessel
  20. Simon Newcomb
  21. Rudolf Steiner
  22. Albert Einstein
  23. John Knight Fotheringham
  24. Robert Russell Newton
  25. Vittorio Goretti
  26. Theodor Landscheidt
  27. Howard Margolis
  28. Anaxagoras
  29. Aristotle
  30. Heraclides Pontius
  31. Theophrastus
  32. Eratosthenes
  33. Aristarchus of Samos
  34. Seleucus of Seleucia
  35. Macrobius
  36. Martianus Capella
  37. Aryabhata
  38. Azophi
  39. Alhazen
  40. Avicenna
  41. Avempace
  42. Averroes
  43. Al Shirazi
  44. Ulugh Beg
  45. Muisca astronomy
  46. Regiomontanus
  47. Valentin Naboth
  48. Paul Wittich
  49. Francesco Maurolico
  50. Thomas Digges
  51. Christoph Rothmann
  52. Nicolaus Reimers
  53. Christopher Clavius
  54. Giovanni Antonio Magini
  55. Christoph Grienberger
  56. Odo van Maelcote (it)
  57. Odo van Maelcote (fr)
  58. Odo van Maelcote (de)
  59. Giuseppe Biancani
  60. Johannes Praetorius
  61. Simon Marius
  62. David Fabricius
  63. Johannes Fabricius
  64. Willebrord Snellius
  65. Christiaan Huygens
  66. Johannes Hevelius
  67. Robert Hooke
  68. Edmond Halley
  69. Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr
  70. Charles Messier
  71. Anders Celsius
  72. Giuseppe Piazzi
  73. Barnaba Oriani
  74. Eise Eisinga
  75. Pierre-Simon Laplace
  76. William Herschel
  77. John Herschel
  78. James South
  79. Friedrich von Struve
  80. Angelo Secchi
  81. Urbain Le Verrier
  82. Johann Gottfried Galle
  83. William Lassell
  84. Asaph Hall
  85. Clyde Tombaugh
  86. Gerard Kuiper

Other links

External links

Tychonic

Archaeoastronomy

Miscellaneous