Difference between revisions of "TYCHOS glossary"

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== Celestial bodies ==
== Celestial bodies ==
''Note: bodies with a higher [[apparent magnitude]] than ~4 (city) or 6 (faintest) are not visible with the naked eye''
''Note: bodies with a higher [[apparent magnitude]] than ~4 (city) or 6 (faintest) are not visible with the naked eye''<br>
''The added zeros are for proper sorting''
{| class="wikitable"
{| class="wikitable"

Revision as of 12:42, 21 April 2018

Animation of a binary star system

This is a glossary of terms, celestial bodies and researchers mentioned in and related to the TYCHOS book, first published by Simon Shack on March 21st, 2018.[T 1] Simon and Patrix, developer of the Tychosium, were interviewed on April 9, 2018, by Hoi Polloi and Kham in Clues Chronicle 25.[T 2]


Note: mainstream definition is listed, the TYCHOS redefines certain terms

Mainstream terms used in the TYCHOS book
Term Description
TYCHOS in bold
bold in detail
binary star/binary system a binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter. These systems, especially when more distant, often appear to the unaided eye as a single point of light, and are then revealed as multiple by other means. The Open Exoplanet Catalogue lists several planets in binary or multiple star systems. 1, 3, 4, 5, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 27, 28 [T 3]
[WPT 1]
apparent magnitude a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. The brighter an object appears, the lower its magnitude value (i.e. inverse relation). 35 [T 4]
[WPT 2]
astronomical unit (AU) a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun. However, that distance varies as Earth orbits the Sun, from a maximum (aphelion) to a minimum (perihelion) and back again once a year. Originally conceived as the average of Earth's aphelion and perihelion, it was defined exactly as 149,597,870,700 metres or about 150 million kilometres (93 million miles) since 2012. 5, 15, 17, 26, 32, 33, 36 [WPT 3]
light-year (ly) a unit of length used to express astronomical distances and measures about 9.5 trillion kilometres or 5.9 trillion miles. As defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), a light-year is the distance that light travels in vacuum in one Julian year (365.25 days). 35 [T 4]
[WPT 4]
parsec (pc) a unit of length used to measure large distances to astronomical objects outside the Solar System. A parsec was defined as the distance at which one astronomical unit subtends an angle of one arcsecond, but it was redefined in 2015 to exactly 648000 / π astronomical units. One parsec is equal to about 3.26 light-years (30 trillion km or 19 trillion miles) in length. 35 [T 4]
[WPT 5]
right ascension (RA) the angular distance measured eastward along the celestial equator from the Sun at the March equinox to the hour circle of the point above the Earth in question. When paired with declination, these astronomical coordinates specify the direction of a point on the celestial sphere (traditionally called in English the skies or the sky) in the equatorial coordinate system. 6, 9, 16, 19, 27 [WPT 6]
declination (DECL) one of the two angles that locate a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system, the other being hour angle. Declination's angle is measured north or south of the celestial equator, along the hour circle passing through the point in question. 8, 12 [WPT 7]
celestial equator the great circle of the imaginary celestial sphere on the same plane as the equator of Earth. This plane of reference bases the equatorial coordinate system. In other words, the celestial equator is an abstract projection of the terrestrial equator into outer space. As a result of the planet's axial tilt, the celestial equator is currently inclined by about 23.44° with respect to the ecliptic plane. 5, 8, 12 [WPT 8]
celestial sphere an abstract sphere with an arbitrarily large radius concentric to Earth. All objects in the sky can be conceived as being projected upon the inner surface of the celestial sphere, which may be centered on Earth or the observer. 16, 19, 20, 23, 24, 26, 28, 29, 36 [WPT 9]
perigee term describing the position of a celestial body closest to Earth. 3, 11, 12, 20, 24, 27, 28 [WPT 10]
apogee term describing the position of a celestial body farthest from Earth. 20, 24, 28 [WPT 10]
perihelion term describing the position of the Sun closest to Earth. The Earth reaches perihelion in early January, approximately 14 days after the December solstice. At perihelion, the Earth's center is about 0.98329 astronomical units (AU) or 147,098,070 km (91,402,500 mi) from the Sun's center. 10, 17, 20, 24, 27, 28, 30 [WPT 11]
aphelion term describing the position of the Sun farthest from Earth. The Earth reaches aphelion currently in early July, approximately 14 days after the June solstice. The aphelion distance between the Earth's and Sun's centers is currently about 1.01671 AU or 152,097,700 km (94,509,100 mi). 17, 20 [WPT 11]
equinox commonly regarded as the moment the plane of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun's disk, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September. It is the point in which the center of the visible sun is directly over the equator. This simplified, but incorrect, understanding of Earth's orbital motion can lead to errors of up to 69 seconds from the actual time of equinox. 1, 5, 6, 8, 16, 18, 30, 31, 33 [WPT 12]
solstice an event occurring when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere. Two solstices occur annually, around June 21 and December 21. The seasons of the year are directly connected to both the solstices and the equinoxes. 8, 30, 31, 33 [WPT 13]
conjunction (inferior/superior) a conjunction occurs when two astronomical objects have either the same right ascension or the same ecliptic longitude, as observed from Earth. When two objects always appear close to the ecliptic —such as two planets, the Moon and a planet, or the Sun and a planet— this fact implies an apparent close approach between the objects as seen on the sky. 7, 9, 10, 11, 21, 28 [WPT 14]
prograde in our Solar System, all of the planets and most of the other objects that orbit the Sun, with the exception of many comets, do so in the "prograde" direction, i.e. the same sense as the rotation of the Sun. In addition, the rotations of most planets are prograde. 7, 9 [T 5][T 6]
[WPT 15]
retrograde motion that is contrary to the rotation of the primary, that is, the object that forms the system's hub. Rotation is determined with respect to an inertial frame of reference, such as distant fixed stars. 7, 9 [T 5][T 6]
[WPT 15]
proper motion the astronomical measure of the observed changes in the apparent places of stars or other celestial objects in the sky, as seen from the center of mass of the Solar System, compared to the abstract background of the more distant stars. 36 [T 7]
[WPT 16]
radial velocity the rate of change of the distance between the object and the point. That is, the radial velocity is the component of the object's velocity that points in the direction of the radius connecting the object and the point. In astronomy, the point is usually taken to be the observer on Earth, so the radial velocity then denotes the speed with which the object moves away from or approaches the Earth. 36 [T 7]
[WPT 17]
negative stellar parallax negative stellar parallax has been measured in about 23% of all cases where parallax was measured by the Hipparcos and Gaia space telescopes. Negative parallax is impossible in the Copernican model. 36 [T 7][2]
deferent in both Hipparchian and Ptolemaic systems, the planets are assumed to move in a small circle called an epicycle, which in turn moves along a larger circle called a deferent. 6 [T 8]
[WPT 18]
epicycle a geometric model used to explain the variations in speed and direction of the apparent motion of the Moon, Sun, and planets. In particular it explained the apparent retrograde motion of the five planets known at the time. Secondarily, it also explained changes in the apparent distances of the planets from the Earth. 6 [T 8]
[WPT 18]
adaptive optics a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effect of incoming wavefront distortions by deforming a mirror in order to compensate for the distortion. It is used in astronomical telescopes to remove the effects of atmospheric distortion. 1 [T 9]
[WPT 19]
Shack-Hartmann principle an optical instrument used for characterizing an imaging system. It is a wavefront sensor commonly used in adaptive optics systems. Shack–Hartmann sensors are used to characterize eyes for corneal treatment of complex refractive errors. 1 [T 3]
[WPT 20]
aberration of light an astronomical phenomenon which produces an apparent motion of celestial objects about their true positions, dependent on the velocity of the observer. Aberration causes objects to appear to be displaced towards the direction of motion of the observer compared to when the observer is stationary. 34 [T 10]
[WPT 21]
apparent retrograde motion the apparent motion of a planet in a direction opposite to that of other bodies within its system, as observed from a particular vantage point. Direct motion or prograde motion is motion in the same direction as other bodies. 5, 6, 7, 9 [WPT 22]
apsidal precession the precession (rotation) of the orbit of a celestial body. More precisely, it is the gradual rotation of the line joining the apsides of an orbit, which are the points of closest and farthest approach. 28 [T 11]
[WPT 23]
axial tilt the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane. 8 [T 12]
[WPT 24]
circumbinary a planet that orbits two stars instead of one. Because of the short orbits of some binary stars, the only way for planets to form is by forming outside the orbit of the two stars. 9, 14, 29 [T 6]
[WPT 25]
equinoctial precession a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body. In astronomy, precession refers to any of several slow changes in an astronomical body's rotational or orbital parameters. An important example is the steady change in the orientation of the axis of rotation of the Earth, known as the precession of the equinoxes. 18, 22 [T 13][T 14]
[WPT 26]
[WPT 27]
barycenter the center of mass of two or more bodies that are orbiting each other, which is the point around which they both orbit. 12 [T 15]
[WPT 28]
tidal locking occurs when the long-term interaction between a pair of co-orbiting astronomical bodies drives the rotation rates into a harmonic ratio with the orbital period. 11 [T 16]
[WPT 29]
orbital resonance occurs when orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually because their orbital periods are related by a ratio of small integers. Most commonly this relationship is found for a pair of objects. The physics principle behind orbital resonance is similar in concept to pushing a child on a swing, where the orbit and the swing both have a natural frequency, and the other body doing the "pushing" will act in periodic repetition to have a cumulative effect on the motion. Orbital resonances greatly enhance the mutual gravitational influence of the bodies, i.e. their ability to alter or constrain each other's orbits. 15, 20 [T 17][T 18]
[WPT 30]
analemma a diagram showing the variation of the position of the Sun in the sky over the course of a year, as viewed at a fixed time of day and from a fixed location on the Earth. 26 [T 19]
[WPT 31]
Equation of Time the discrepancy between two kinds of solar time. The word equation is used in the medieval sense of "reconcile a difference". The two times that differ are the apparent solar time, which directly tracks the diurnal motion of the Sun, and mean solar time, which tracks a theoretical mean Sun with noons 24 hours apart. 26 [T 19]
[WPT 32]
Sothic cycle a period of 1,461 Egyptian civil years of 365 days each or 1,460 Julian years averaging 365¼ days each. During a Sothic cycle, the 365-day year loses enough time that the start of its year once again coincides with the heliacal rising of the star Sirius on 19 July in the Julian calendar. 25, 33 [T 20]
[WPT 33]
Saros cycle a period of approximately 223 synodic months (approximately 6585.3211 days, or 18 years, 11 days, 8 hours), that can be used to predict eclipses of the Sun and Moon. One Saros cycle after an eclipse, the Sun, Earth, and Moon return to approximately the same relative geometry, a near straight line, and a nearly identical eclipse will occur, in what is referred to as an eclipse cycle. A sar is one half of a Saros cycle. 16 [T 21]
[WPT 34]
exeligmos a period of 54 years, 33 days that can be used to predict successive eclipses with similar properties and location. For a solar eclipse, after every exeligmos a solar eclipse of similar characteristics will occur in a location close to the eclipse before it. For a lunar eclipse the same part of the Earth will view an eclipse that is very similar to the one that occurred one exeligmos before it. It is an eclipse cycle that is a 3 saroses long. 27 [T 22]
[WPT 35]
sidereal year the time taken by the Earth to orbit the Sun once with respect to the fixed stars. 24, 31 [T 23][T 24]
[WPT 36]
sidereal day approximately 23 hours, 56 minutes, 4.0905 SI seconds. The sidereal day is 0.0084 seconds shorter than Earth's period of rotation relative to the fixed stars. 23, 31 [T 25][T 24]
[WPT 37]
solar year/tropical year the time that the Sun takes to return to the same position in the cycle of seasons, as seen from Earth; for example, the time from vernal equinox to vernal equinox, or from summer solstice to summer solstice. 24, 31 [T 23][T 24]
[WPT 38]
solar day/civil day 23, 31 [T 25][T 24]
[WPT 39]
anomalistic year the time taken for the Earth to complete one revolution with respect to its apsides. Its average duration is 365.259636 days (365 d 6 h 13 min 52.6 s). 24, 31 [T 23][T 24]
[WPT 40]
leap second a one-second adjustment that is occasionally applied to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) in order to keep its time of day close to the mean solar time as realized by UT1. Without such a correction, time reckoned by Earth's rotation drifts away from atomic time because of irregularities in the Earth's rate of rotation. Since this system of correction was implemented in 1972, 27 leap seconds have been inserted, the most recent on December 31, 2016 at 23:59:60 UTC. 31 [T 24]
[WPT 41]
Julian calendar proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC was a reform of the Roman calendar and took effect on 1 January 45 BC, the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar in 1582. The Julian calendar gains against the mean tropical year at the rate of one day in 128 years. The difference in the average length of the year between Julian (365.25 days) and Gregorian (365.2425 days) is 0.002%. 32, 33 [T 26][T 27]
[WPT 42]
Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is internationally the most widely used civil calendar, named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582. It is considered a refinement to the Julian calendar, involving an approximately 0.002% correction in the length of the calendar year. The Julian calendar year was changed from 365.25 days (365 days 6 hours) to 365.2425 days (365 days 5 hours 49 minutes 12 seconds), a reduction of 10 minutes 48 seconds per year. 31 [T 24]
[WPT 43]
Milankovitch cycles the collective effects of changes in the Earth's movements on its climate over thousands of years. Hypothesized as variations in supposed eccentricity (100,000 and 413,000 years), presumed axial tilt (~41,000 year), and precession (TYCHOS Great Year) of the Earth's orbit resulted in cyclical variation in the solar radiation reaching the Earth, and that this orbital forcing strongly influenced climatic patterns on Earth. It is an important geological parameter. 17 [T 28]
[WPT 44]
Michelson-Morley experiment experiment performed between April and July, 1887 by Albert A. Michelson and Edward W. Morley in Cleveland, Ohio. It compared the speed of light in perpendicular directions, in an attempt to detect the relative motion of matter through the aether. The result was negative, in that the expected difference between the speed of light in the direction of movement through the presumed aether, and the speed at right angles, was found not to exist.
The experiment tried to measure the velocity of Earth around the Sun (an expected 107,000 km/h). It is known as the "most failed experiment in scientific history" - as no such velocity was found. Michelson even thought of "the possibility that the solar system as a whole might have moved in the opposite direction of Earth", which is precisely what Earth does in the TYCHOS, as it moves clockwise around its PVP orbit.
19 [T 29][T 2]
[WPT 45]
General Relativity (GR) the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics. 28 [T 11]
[WPT 46]
Binary Research Institute The Binary Research Institute was formed in 2001 to support and fund research regarding the hypothesis that the Sun is part of a binary star system. 1, 14, 18, 24, 30 [5]
NEAVE planetarium interactive sky map for exploring the stars and planets. 7, 8 [6]
SCOPE planetarium free online model of solar system and night sky. 7 [7]
Stellarium free open source planetarium for your computer. It shows a realistic sky in 3D, just like what you see with the naked eye, binoculars or a telescope. 7, 8 [8]
TYCHOS-specific terms used in the TYCHOS book
Term Description Chapters
bold in detail
TYCHOS a revised model of our solar system. Its basic orbital configuration is based on the semi-Tychonian model as defined by Longomontanus in his Astronomia Danica (1622), a monumental work regarded as Tycho Brahe’s “testament”. Although the semi-Tychonic and the TYCHOS models are geometrically similar, they significantly differ in that the latter assigns an orbit to Earth – whereas the former considers Earth as a motionless (albeit diurnally-rotating) celestial body. All [T 30]
[T 31]
Annual Constant of Precession (ACP) read the book 16, 19, 20, 22, 24, 27, 30 [T 14]
Empiric Sidereal Interval (ESI) timespan when Mars is in front of a given star. Two ESIs exist, a common long ESI of 707.5 solar days and a short ESI of 546 solar days. This observation remains unexplained in the Copernican model and Kepler fudged the observational data acquired by Tycho Brahe to hide this fact, averaging the sidereal period of Mars to 693 days. The Maya actually incorporated these different ESIs of Mars in their advanced Maya calendar. 6, 7, 10 [T 8][T 2]
geoptical read the book 34 [T 10]
PVP orbit the PVP (Polaris-Vega-Polaris) orbit of Earth is the orbit the Earth makes over the course of one TYCHOS Great Year (25,344 solar years) around a central point with a velocity of about 1.6 km/h (1 mph). 19 [T 29]
PVP constant read the book 19 [T 29]
True Mean Synodic Period (TMSP) read the book 11, 17, 27 [T 22]
Tychosium 2D a bi-dimensional overhead view (as seen from above Earth's North Pole) of our Sun-Mars 'geoaxial' binary system, developed by Patrix. 21 [T 32][T 33]
Tychosium 3D a tri-dimensional view of our Sun-Mars 'geoaxial' binary system, in development by Patrix. 21 [T 32][T 34]
TYCHOS Great Year (TGY) the period in which the Earth makes one PVP orbit, duration 25,344 solar years. 16, 30, 32 [T 21][T 35]
[T 26]
TYCHOS reduction factor in the TYCHOS, the stars are approximately 42,633 times closer to Earth than in the Copernican model. 36 [T 7][T 2]

Celestial bodies

Note: bodies with a higher apparent magnitude than ~4 (city) or 6 (faintest) are not visible with the naked eye
The added zeros are for proper sorting

Appearing in the sky[9] Meaning in TYCHOS[T 36]
March - northern spring, southern fall near-zero parallax
June - northern summer, southern winter positive parallax
September - northern fall, southern spring near-zero parallax
December - northern winter, southern summer negative parallax
All year - Northern/Southern latitudes variable parallaxes
Variable variable parallaxes
dM distance according to Mainstream (ly for stars, AU for planets and moons)
dT distance according to TYCHOS (AU)[T 7]
Star (bold number of exoplanets, p possible planets) stars (many more)[WPB 1] and exoplanets at TYCHOS distances <78 AU (<52.5 ly) are within TYCHOS binary system sphere (closer than Pluto)
Celestial bodies (not) mentioned in the TYCHOS book
Sky Name App. magnitude dM dT Description Chapters
bold in detail
Earth Home. All [WPB 2]
Sun -26.74 1 0001 Our star, accompanied by Mars in a binary system. Orbital period of 12.5 x 29.22 days (365.25 days). All [T 37]
[WPB 3]
V Moon -12.74 0.0024 0.0024 Moon of Earth. Orbital period of 1 x 29.22 days. Preface, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 23, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 [T 22][T 37]
[WPB 4]
V Mercury -2.6-5.7 0.3-0.46 0.51-1.48 Junior moon of the Sun. Orbital period of 4 x 29.22 days (116.88 days). Preface, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 27, 28, Epilogue [T 38][T 39]
[T 37]
[WPB 5]
V Venus -4.9 to -3.8 0.72 0.25-1 Senior moon of the Sun. Orbital period of 20 x 29.22 days (584.4 days). 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 20, 27 [T 40][T 16]
[T 37]
[WPB 6]
V Mars -3.0-1.6 1.38-1.66 0.37-2.66 Binary companion of the Sun. Orbital period of 25 x 29.22 days (730.5 days). Preface, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 26, 27, 36, Epilogue [T 41][T 37]
[WPB 7]
V Jupiter -2.94 to -1.6 5.19 0005.19 P-type planet. Orbital period of 150 x 29.22 days (4383 days). 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 20, 26, 27, 29, 36 [T 42][T 37]
[WPB 8]
V Saturn -0.24-1.47 9.51 0009.51 P-type planet. Orbital period of 375 x 29.22 days (10,957.5 days). 2, 3, 6, 9, 13, 15, 29, 35, 36 [T 42]
[WPB 9]
V Uranus 5.32-5.9 38.29 0038.29 P-type planet. Orbital period of 1050 x 29.22 days (30,681 days). 9, 13, 15, 29 [T 42]
[WPB 10]
V Neptune 7.78-8.02 59.93 0059.93 P-type planet. Orbital period of 2062.5 x 29.22 days (60,266.25 days). 9, 13, 15, 29 [T 42]
[WPB 11]
V Pluto 13.65-16.3 78.75 0078.75 P-type planet. Orbital period of 3100 x 29.22 days (90,582 days). 9, 15, 29 [T 42]
[WPB 12]
V Phobos 11.8 1.38-1.66~ 0.37-2.66~ Senior moon of Mars. 3, 5 [T 43]
[WPB 13]
V Deimos 12.89 1.38-1.66~ 0.37-2.66~ Junior moon of Mars. 3, 5 [T 43]
[WPB 14]
V Ganymede 4.38-4.61 5.19~ 0005.19~ Largest Galilean moon of Jupiter. 3 [T 43]
[WPB 15]
V Io 5.02 5.19~ 0005.19~ Innermost Galilean moon of Jupiter. 3, 26 [T 43]
[WPB 16]
V Europa 5.29 5.19~ 0005.19~ Smallest Galilean moon of Jupiter. 3 [T 43]
[WPB 17]
V Callisto 5.65 5.19~ 0005.19~ 2nd-largest Galilean moon of Jupiter. [WPB 18]
V Titan 8.2-9.0 9.51~ 0009.51~ Largest moon of Saturn. [WPB 19]
V Iapetus 10.2-11.9 9.51~ 0009.51~ 3rd-largest moon of Saturn. [WPB 20]
V Rhea 10 9.51~ 0009.51~ 2nd-largest moon of Saturn. [WPB 21]
V Tethys 10.2 9.51~ 0009.51~ 2nd-brightest moon of Saturn. [WPB 22]
V Dione 10.4 9.51~ 0009.51~ 3rd of inner moons of Saturn. [WPB 23]
V Enceladus 11.7 9.51~ 0009.51~ 6th-largest moon of Saturn. [WPB 24]
V Mimas 12.9 9.51~ 0009.51~ Largest moon of Saturn. [WPB 25]
V Triton 13.47 59.93~ 0059.93~ Largest moon of Neptune. [WPB 26]
V Titania 13.9 38.29~ 0038.29~ Largest moon of Uranus. [WPB 27]
V Oberon 14.1 38.29~ 0038.29~ 2nd-largest moon of Uranus. [WPB 28]
V Ariel 14.4 38.29~ 0038.29~ 4th-largest moon of Uranus. [WPB 29]
V Umbriel 14.5 38.29~ 0038.29~ 3rd-largest moon of Uranus. [WPB 30]
V Miranda 15.8 38.29~ 0038.29~ 5th-largest moon of Uranus. [WPB 31]
V Main Asteroid Belt 2-3 0002-3 Asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. 14 [T 44]
[WPB 32]
V Kuiper Belt 30-50 ? Kuiper object belt outside of orbit of Neptune. 14 [T 44]
[WPB 33]
D Sirius -1.46 8.60 ± 0.04 0012.75 Brightest star in the night sky, binary system. 1, 3, 4, 6, 32, 33 [T 45]
[WPB 34]
AN Vega (p) -0.02-0.07 25.04 ± 0.07 0037.15 5th-brightest star in the night sky. 5, 14, 19, 26, 36 [WPB 35]
J Fomalhaut (1) 1.16 25.13 ± 0.09 0037.28 18th-brightest star in the night sky. Binary star system with exoplanets, 2nd-brightest star with exoplanets, after Pollux. 14 [T 44]
[WPB 36]
[WPB 37]
J Deneb 1.25 1500-3227 2225-4787 19th brightest star in the night sky. Distance estimated between 1500 and 3227 ly. 35 [T 4]
[WPB 38]
AS Alpha & Proxima Centauri (1) 1.33 4.37 0006.48 Binary/triple star system, closest to Earth. Exoplanet found around Proxima Centauri, more suspected. 1, 35, 36 [T 4][T 7]
[WPB 39]
[WPB 40]
[WPB 41]
M Regulus 1.4 79.3 ± 0.7 0117.65 21st brightest star in the night sky. 4+ star system. Near ecliptic. 6 [T 8]
[WPB 42]
AN Polaris 1.86-2.13 323–433 0479-642 North Star, binary system. Preface, 5, 8, 18, 19, 34, Epilogue [T 29]
[WPB 43]
AN Gamma Draconis 2.23 154.3 ± 0.7 0229 Brightest star of Draco. London Zenith Star. Used by James Bradley for the supposed aberration of light. May have a companion. Epilogue [T 46]
[WPB 44]
J Delta Capricorni 2.81 38.70 ± 0.09 0057.41 Binary system. 7 [T 5]
[WPB 45]
D Tau Ceti (4) 3.5 11.905 ± 0.007 0017.66 Single star, first analysis showed 5 exoplanets. Subsequent research discarded 3 of them, but found 2 more. 14 [T 44]
[WPB 46]
AN Thuban 3.65 303 ± 5 0449 PVP Pole Star over time. 19 [T 29]
[WPB 47]
D Epsilon Eridani (p) 3.74 10.475 ± 0.003 0015.5 Single star, exoplanet and asteroid belt supposed. 14 [T 44]
[WPB 48]
D Beta Pictoris 3.86 63.4 ± 0.1 0094 Single star, exoplanet found. 14 [T 44]
[WPB 49]
J 61 Cygni (p) 5.2 11.41 ± 0.02 0016.9 Binary star system, first star (system) where parallax was measured by Bessel. Exoplanets claimed, not certain. 36 [T 7]
[WPB 50]
AN V762 Cas 5.87 2764.1-14,825.6 4100-21,996 Farthest star visible with the naked eye at 14,825.61 ly (4545.45 Pc) (1997) or 2764.10 ly (847.46 Pc) (2007). 35 [T 4]
D 55 Cancri (5) 5.95 40.3 ± 0.4 0059.8 Binary star system, 5 exoplanets found, 55 Cancri c named Brahe. 14 [T 44]
[WPB 51]
[WPB 52]
J Barnard's Star 9.51 5.978 ± 0.002 0008.87 Wandering star, highest proper motion. Preface [T 30]
[WPB 53]
D Canopus -0.74 310 ± 20 0460 2nd-brightest star in the night sky. [WPB 54]
M Arcturus (p) -0.05 36.7 ± 0.2 0054.4 4th-brightest star in the night sky. [WPB 55]
D Capella 0.03-0.16 42.919 ± 0.049 0063.6 6th-brightest star in the night sky, double binary star system. [WPB 56]
D Rigel 0.05-0.18 860 ± 80 1276 7th-brightest star in the night sky, brightest of Orion, 3 to 5 star system. [WPB 57]
D Procyon 0.34 11.46 ± 0.05 0017 8th-brightest star in the night sky, binary system. [WPB 58]
D Betelgeuse 0.0-1.3 640 0949 9th-brightest star in the night sky, 2nd-brightest of Orion. [WPB 59]
AS Achernar 0.40-0.46 139 ± 3 0206 10th-brightest star in the night sky, binary system. [WPB 60]
AS Beta Centauri 0.61 390 ± 20 0578 11th-brightest star in the night sky. Triple star system. [WPB 61]
J Altair 0.76 16.73 ± 0.05 0024.82 12th-brightest star in the night sky, breaking up? [WPB 62]
AS Alpha Crucis 0.76 320 ± 20 0474 13th-brightest star in the night sky. Multiple star system. [WPB 63]
D Aldebaran 0.75-0.95 65.3 ± 1.0 0096.88 14th-brightest star in the night sky. Likely hosting exoplanets. [WPB 64]
M Antares 0.6-1.6 550~ 0816~ 15th-brightest star in the night sky. Likely largest known star. [WPB 65]
M Spica 0.97-1.04 250 ± 10 0371 16th-brightest star in the night sky, binary system. [WPB 66]
D Pollux (1) 1.14 33.78 ± 0.09 0050.11 17th-brightest star in the night sky. Brightest star with an exoplanet. [WPB 67]
[WPB 68]
AS Mimosa 1.23-1.31 280 ± 20 0415 20th-brightest star in the night sky, binary system. [WPB 69]
D Bellatrix 1.59-1.64 250 ± 10 0371 25th-brightest star in the night sky. Right shoulder of Orion (seen from Northern hemisphere, the left shoulder is Betelgeuse). [WPB 70]
S Pleiades 1.6 444
Seven stars appearing close together in the constellation of Taurus. [WPB 71]
AS Gamma Crucis 1.64 88.6 ± 0.4 0131.45 Single star. [WPB 72]
D Alnilam 1.69 2000~ 2967~ Central star of Orion's Belt. Single star. [WPB 73]
D Alnitak 1.77 1,260 ± 180 1869 Left star of Orion's Belt (seen from Northern hemisphere). Triple star system. [WPB 74]
AN Alioth 1.77 82.6 ± 0.4 0122.5 31st-brightest star in the night sky. Leftmost and brightest star of the Big Dipper. [WPB 75]
AN Dubhe 1.79 123 ± 2 0182.4 2nd-brightest star of the Big Dipper. Has a companion. [WPB 76]
AN Alkaid 1.86 103.9 ± 0.8 0154.1 3rd-brightest star of the Big Dipper. Single star. [WPB 77]
D Castor 1.93 51 ± 3 0075.6 Triple star system. [WPB 78]
AN Mizar 2.04 82.9 ± 0.6 0123 4th-brightest star of the Big Dipper. Visual double star, part of quadruple system with Alcor. [WPB 79]
D Saiph 2.09 650 ± 30 0964 Left foot of Orion (seen from Northern hemisphere, the right foot is Rigel). [WPB 80]
M Algol 2.12-3.39 90 ± 3 0133.5 Triple star system. [WPB 81]
D Mintaka 2.23 691-1400 1025-2077 Right star of Orion's Belt (seen from Northern hemisphere). Multiple star system. The distance derived from the Hipparcos satellite parallax is 212 ± 30 pc (691 ± 97.8), while spectroscopic distances, comparisons to similar stars, and cluster membership all suggest a value more than double that (~1400 ly). This type of unreconcilable discrepancy is not unique to Mintaka and the reasons for it have yet to be clarified. [WPB 82]
AN Merak 2.37 79.7 ± 0.3 0118.2 5th-brightest star of the Big Dipper. Single star. [WPB 83]
AN Phecda 2.43 83.2 ± 0.8 0123.4 6th-brightest star of the Big Dipper. Astrometric binary. [WPB 84]
AN Alderamin 2.51 49.05 ± 0.08 0072.77 Pole Star over time. [WPB 85]
AN Megrez 3.31 58.4 ± 0.3 0086.64 7th-brightest (dimmest) star of the Big Dipper. Two companions. [WPB 86]
D 82 G. Eridani (3, 3 p) 4.25 19.71 ± 0.02 0029.24 High velocity star with 3 confirmed and 3 possible exoplanets. [WPB 87]
J 61 Virginis (2, 1 p) 4.74 27.90 ± 0.05 0041.39 Star with 2 confirmed and 1 unconfirmed exoplanets. [WPB 88]
J 66 G. Centauri (1) 4.88 30.07 ± 0.06 0044.61 Binary star with 1 exoplanet. [WPB 89]
S Gliese 785 (2) 5.73 29.06 ± 0.08 0043.11 Sun-like star with 2 exoplanets. [WPB 90]
D Gliese 892 (5, 2 p) 5.74 21.35 ± 0.04 0031.67 Star with companion and 5 confirmed and 2 unconfirmed exoplanets. [WPB 91]
J Gliese 667 (2) 5.91 23.2 ± 0.3 0034.42 Triple star system with 2 exoplanets. [WPB 92]
M HD 40307 (6) 7.17 41.8 ± 0.3 0062 Single star with 6 exoplanets. [WPB 93]
M HD 85512 (1) 7.66 36.4 ± 0.3 0054 Single star with 1 exoplanet. [WPB 94]
S Gliese 832 (2) 8.66 16.16 ± 0.08 0023.97 Red dwarf with 2 exoplanets. [WPB 95]
D Kapteyn's Star (2) 8.85 12.76 ± 0.05 0018.9 Faint red dwarf with 2 exoplanets. Closest halo star. [WPB 96]
[WPB 97]
AN Gliese 687 (1) 9.15 14.77 ± 0.06 0021.91 Red dwarf with 1 exoplanet. [WPB 98]
J Gliese 674 (1) 9.38 14.81 ± 0.10 0021.97 Red dwarf with 1 exoplanet. [WPB 99]
M Gliese 433 (2) 9.79 29.8 ± 0.1 0044.21 Red dwarf with 2 exoplanets. [WPB 100]
D Luyten's Star (2) 9.9 12.20 ± 0.04 0018.1 Faint red dwarf with 2 exoplanets. [WPB 101]
[WPB 102]
D Gliese 176 (1) 9.95 30.7 ± 0.2 0045.54 Red dwarf with 1 exoplanet. [WPB 103]
J Wolf 1061 (3) 10.07 14.04 ± 0.03 0020.83 Red dwarf with 3 exoplanets. [WPB 104]
J GJ 625 (1) 10.17 21.3 ± 0.1 0031.6 Red dwarf with 1 exoplanet. [WPB 105]
S TRAPPIST-1 (7) 10.29 39.6 ± 0.4 0058.75 Red dwarf with 7 exoplanets, all in orbit closer than Mercury to the Sun. [WPB 106]
S Gliese 849 (2) 10.42 28.80 ± 0.08 0042.72 Red dwarf with 2 exoplanets. [WPB 107]
J Gliese 581 (3, 2 p) 10.56 20.56 ± 0.05 0030.5 Red dwarf with 3 confirmed and 2 possible exoplanets. [WPB 108]
D Gliese 180 (2) 10.89 40.3 ± 1.0 0059.79 Red dwarf with 2 exoplanets. [WPB 109]
M Ross 128 (1) 11.13 11.03 ± 0.02 0016.36 Faint red dwarf with exoplanet. [WPB 110]
[WPB 111]
D YZ Ceti (3, 1 p) 12.03-12.18 12.0 ± 0.4 0017.8 3 exoplanets confirmed, 4th suspected. [WPB 112]
D LHS 1723 (2) 12.2 17.4 ± 0.1 0025.82 Faint red dwarf with 2 exoplanets. [WPB 113]
AS Large Magellanic Cloud 0.9 ? The 3rd-closest galaxy to the Milky Way in the constellations of Dorado and Mensa. [WPB 114]
S Andromeda Galaxy 3.44 ? The nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way in the constellation of Andromeda. [WPB 115]
D Comet of 1472 ? ? Comet visible from Christmas day 1471 until March 1, 1472. The comet is notable as observed by 15th-century astronomers, during a time of rapid progress in planetary theory, shortly before the Copernican Revolution. Observed by Regiomontanus, who tried to estimate its distance from Earth, using parallax. [WPB 116]
M Great Comet of 1556 ? ? Comet visible from February 1556 until March, studied by Cornelius Gemma, Paul Fabricius and Helisaeus Roeslin. [WPB 117]
V Tycho's Supernova -4 ? Supernova occurring from November 2, 1572 until 1574, studied by Tycho Brahe and named after him. At peak apparent magnitude, the supernova was brighter than Jupiter. [11]
[WPB 118]
D Great Comet of 1577 ? ? Comet visible from November 13, 1577 until January 26, 1578, studied by Tycho Brahe. [WPB 119]
V Kepler's Supernova -2.25 to -2.5 ? Supernova occurring from October 9, 1604 until next autumn of 1605, studied by Johannes Kepler and named after him. He published De Stella nova in pede Serpentarii (1606) about it which led to a dispute with Lodovico delle Colombe, who observed the supernova first, and Helisaeus Roeslin. [WPB 120]


Researchers referred to in the TYCHOS book
Sys Name
Main proponents in bold
Centuries Description Chapters Notes
T Simon Shack 21st Author of TYCHOS. [T 47]
T Tycho Brahe 16/17th Danish astronomer responsible for the development of the Tychonian model, upon which the TYCHOS is based. Preface, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 18, 26, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36 [WPR 1]
H Hipparchus -2nd Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician, is considered the founder of trigonometry but is most famous for his incidental discovery of precession of the equinoxes. 30, 32, 36 [T 35]
[WPR 2]
U Sosigenes of Alexandria -1st Greek astronomer from Ptolemaic Egypt who, according to Roman historian Pliny the Elder, was consulted by Julius Caesar for the design of the Julian calendar. 32 [WPR 3]
G Ptolemy 2nd Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer and astrologer responsible for the development of the geocentric model. 6, 18, 27, 30, 36 [WPR 4]
G Aztec astronomy 15th< Archaeoastronomy of the Aztec, central Mexico. Preface, 27, 32 [T 22]
[WPR 5]
G Maya astronomy 15th< Archaeoastronomy of the Maya, Yucatán, Mexico and Guatemala. Their advanced calendar contained the synodic period for Venus and the different ESIs for Mars. Preface, 6, 32, 33 [T 8][T 2]
[WPR 6]
T Nilakantha Somayaji 15/16th Indian mathematician and astronomer of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. One of his most influential works was the comprehensive astronomical treatise Tantrasamgraha completed in 1501. Preface, 2 [T 48]
[WPR 7]
T Longomontanus 16/17th Danish astronomer who really developed Tycho's geoheliocentric model empirically and publicly to common acceptance in the 17th century in his 1622 astronomical tables. He published the voluminous Astronomia Danica (1622), regarded as the testament of Tycho Brahe. Preface, 5, 12 [WPR 8]
H Nicolaus Copernicus 16th Polish/Prussian mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe. The publication of Copernicus' model in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium in 1543 was a major event in the history of science, triggering the Copernican Revolution. Preface, 5, 6, 18, 35, 36, Epilogue [WPR 9]
H Galileo Galilei 16/17th Italian polymath, central figure in the transition from natural philosophy to modern science and transformation of the scientific Renaissance into a scientific revolution. Galileo's championing of heliocentrism and Copernicanism was controversial during his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system. Preface, 12 [WPR 10]
H Johannes Kepler 17th German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer, best known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy, provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation. Preface, 5, 6, 11, 20, 26, Epilogue [WPR 11]
H Giovanni Cassini 17th Italian mathematician, astronomer and engineer. Discoverer of 4 moons of Saturn. 36 [WPR 12]
U Giovanni Riccioli 17th Italian astronomer and Catholic priest in the Jesuit order. He is known, for his experiments with pendulums and with falling bodies, for his discussion of 126 arguments concerning the motion of the Earth, for describing the first binary star system and for introducing the current scheme of lunar nomenclature. 1 [WPR 13]
T Cristoph Scheiner 17th German Jesuit priest, physicist and astronomer who discovered the changes in sunspots, published in 1630. 12 [T 15]
[WPR 14]
H Isaac Newton 17/18th English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist, widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687), laid the foundations of classical mechanics. Preface, 4, 10, 28, Epilogue [WPR 15]
U Ole Roemer 17th/18th Danish astronomer who in 1676 made the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light, persuaded the king to introduce the Gregorian calendar in Denmark-Norway — something Tycho Brahe had argued for in vain a hundred years earlier. 26 [WPR 16]
H James Bradley 18th English astronomer and priest. Best known for two fundamental discoveries in astronomy, the aberration of light (1725–1728), and the nutation of the Earth's axis (1728–1748). Preface, 26, 34, Epilogue [T 10]
[WPR 17]
T Pathani Samanta 19th Indian astronomer and scholar who measured the distance from earth with a bamboo pipe and many other traditional instruments that he built. His observations, research and calculations were compiled into a book Siddhanta Darpana. He reached the same conclusions as Tycho Brahe - yet also failed to envisage that Earth must logically have an orbit (both imagined Earth as an orbitless, immobile body). Preface, 2, 6 [T 2]
[WPR 18]
H Friedrich Bessel 19th German astronomer, mathematician, physicist and geodesist. He was the first astronomer who determined reliable values for the distance from the sun to another star by the method of parallax. 36 [WPR 19]
U Simon Newcomb 19th Canadian–American astronomer, applied mathematician and autodidactic polymath, made important contributions to timekeeping. 30, 36 [WPR 20]
U Rudolf Steiner 19/20th Austrian philosopher, social reformer, architect and esotericist, founded an esoteric spiritual movement, anthroposophy, with roots in German idealist philosophy and theosophy; other influences include Goethean science and Rosicrucianism. Preface [WPR 21]
H Albert Einstein 20th German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, awarded Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921. Preface, 3, 4, 6, 10, Epilogue [WPR 22]
U John Knight Fotheringham 20th British historian who was an expert on ancient astronomy and chronology. He established the chronology of the Babylonian dynasties. 30 [WPR 23]
U Robert Russell Newton 20th American physicist, astronomer, and historian of science, known for his work on change of the rotation rate of the Earth, and historical observations of eclipses. 30 [WPR 24]
U Vittorio Goretti 20th Italian amateur astronomer and a discoverer of minor planets, discovered 32 main-belt asteroids. 36 [WPR 25]
U Theodor Landscheidt 20th German author, astrologer and amateur climatologist. 13 [T 49]
[WPR 26]
T Karl-Heinz Homann 20th/21st German electronic technician. 33 [T 50]
T Howard Margolis 20th/21st American social scientist. His study of social theory focused on the underpinnings of individual choice and judgment that shape aggregate social outcomes. 1 [T 51]
[WPR 27]
T James Schombert 20th/21st American astrophysicist (1984, Yale), Fields of research: Galaxy Surveys, Evolution and Properties of Galaxies. 1 [T 52]
T Walter Cruttenden 20th/21st American amateur theoretical archaeo-astronomer and author of the binary theory of precession. 1, 18, 24, 30, 33 [T 53]
U Anthony Ayiomamitis 21st Greek astrophotographer. 26 [14]
T Christopher Graney 21st American professor of physics and astronomy. Preface, 5 [15]
Flat and Hollow Earthers
Researchers not referred to in the TYCHOS book
Sys Name
Main proponents in bold
Centuries Description Chapters Notes
F Anaxagoras -5th Greek philosopher and scientist whose observations of the celestial bodies and the fall of meteorites led him to form new theories of the universal order, and to a putative prediction of the impact of a meteorite in 467. He attempted to give a scientific account of eclipses, meteors, rainbows, and the sun, which he described as a mass of blazing metal, larger than the Peloponnese. The heavenly bodies, he asserted, were masses of stone torn from the Earth and ignited by rapid rotation. He was the first to give a correct explanation of eclipses, and was both famous and notorious for his scientific theories, including the claims that the Sun is a mass of red-hot metal, that the Moon is earthy, and that the stars are fiery stones. He thought the earth was flat and floated supported by 'strong' air under it and disturbances in this air sometimes caused earthquakes. [WPR 28]
G Aristotle -4th Greek philosopher and scientist, considered the "Father of Western Philosophy". [WPR 29]
G Heraclides Ponticus -4th Greek philosopher and astronomer, incorrectly named the father of heliocentrism. [WPR 30]
G Theophrastus -3rd Greek biologist and physicist, student of Aristotle. Published Heaven. [WPR 31]
G Eratosthenes -3rd Greek mathematician, geographer, astronomer, invented the discipline of geography, best known for being the first person to calculate the circumference of the Earth and also the first to calculate the tilt of the Earth's axis. He may have accurately calculated the distance from the Earth to the Sun and invented the leap day, created the first map of the world, incorporating parallels and meridians. He also calculated the Sun's diameter at about 27 times that of the Earth, in reality it is approximately 109 times. [WPR 32]
H Aristarchus of Samos -3rd Greek astronomer and mathematician, the father of heliocentrism, suspected the stars were other suns that are very far away, and that in consequence there was no observable parallax; movement of the stars relative to each other as the Earth moves around the Sun. [WPR 33]
H Seleucus of Seleucia -2nd Mesopotamian astronomer and philosopher, proponent of heliocentrism, the first to assume the universe to be infinite. [WPR 34]
T Macrobius 4th/5th Roman writer who presented a discourse upon the nature of the cosmos, transmitting much classical philosophy to the later Middle Ages. In astronomy, this work is noted for giving the diameter of the Sun as twice the diameter of the Earth. [WPR 35]
T Martianus Capella 5th Latin prose writer of Late Antiquity, one of the earliest developers of the system of the seven liberal arts that structured early medieval education. His single encyclopedic work was De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii. [WPR 36]
G Aryabhata 5th/6th Indian mathematician and astronomer. He ascribed the apparent motions of the heavens to the Earth's rotation. He may have believed that the planet's orbits as elliptical rather than circular. Aryabhata correctly insisted that the Earth rotates about its axis daily, and that the apparent movement of the stars is a relative motion caused by the rotation of the Earth, contrary to the then-prevailing view, that the sky rotated. He described a geocentric model of the solar system, in which the Sun and Moon are each carried by epicycles. They in turn revolve around the Earth. In this model, the motions of the planets are each governed by two epicycles, smaller and larger. The order of the planets in terms of distance from Earth is taken as: the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the asterisms. [WPR 37]
G Azophi 10th Persian astronomer who identified the Large Magellanic Cloud and made the earliest recorded observation of the Andromeda Galaxy, the first galaxies other than the Milky Way to be observed from Earth. He observed that the ecliptic plane is inclined with respect to the celestial equator and more accurately calculated the length of the tropical year. He observed and described the stars, their positions, their magnitudes and their colour. For each constellation, he provided two drawings, one from the outside of a celestial globe, and the other from the inside (as seen from the Earth). [WPR 38]
G Alhazen 10th/11th Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist, honored as Ptolemaeus secundus, kept a geocentric universe and assumed that celestial motions are uniformly circular, which required the inclusion of epicycles to explain observed motion, published in The Model of the Motions of Each of the Seven Planets (~1038). [WPR 39]
G Avicenna 11th Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age. He claimed to have observed Venus as a spot on the Sun, there was a transit on May 24, 1032, to help establish that Venus was, at least sometimes, below the Sun in Ptolemaic cosmology, i.e. the sphere of Venus comes before the sphere of the Sun when moving out from the Earth in the prevailing geocentric model. He considered the motion of the solar apogee, which Ptolemy had taken to be fixed. [WPR 40]
G Avempace 11th Arab Andalusian polymath, astronomer, physicist and philosopher. He published a theory in which the motion of the stars and planets is uniform and circular, and in agreement with observation. [WPR 41]
G Averroes 12th Andalusian Moorish polymath, philosopher, mathematician and astronomer. Popularized the work of Aristotle. [WPR 42]
G Al 13th Persian polymath, astronomer, mathematician and physicist. Followed up on Ptolemy and in The Limit of Accomplishment concerning Knowledge of the Heavens discussed the possibility of heliocentrism. [WPR 43]
H Shirazi
G Ulugh Beg 15th Persian astronomer and mathematician, built an enormous observatory, similar to Tycho Brahe's later Uraniborg. Using it, he compiled the 1437 Zij-i-Sultani of 994 stars, considered the greatest star catalogue between those of Ptolemy and Brahe. He determined the length of the sidereal year as 365.2570370...d = 365d 6h 10m 8s (an error of +58 seconds) and a more precise value of tropical year as 365d 5h 49m 15s, which has an error of +25 seconds, making it more accurate than Copernicus's estimate. He determined the Earth's axial tilt as 23;30,17 degrees (23.5047 degrees). [WPR 44]
G Muisca astronomy 15th< Archaeoastronomy of the Muisca, Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Colombia. [WPR 45]
H Regiomontanus 15th German mathematician and astronomer who formulated a theory of heliocentrism. Copernicus lists him as an inspiration. He observed the Comet of 1472 and tried to estimate its distance from Earth, using the angle of parallax. [WPR 46]
G Erasmus Reinhold 16th German astronomer and mathematician, considered to be the most influential astronomical pedagogue of his generation. Reinhold knew about Copernicus and his heliocentric ideas prior to the publication of De revolutionibis and made a favourable reference to him in his commentary on Purbach. However, Reinhold (like other astronomers before Kepler and Galileo) translated Copernicus' mathematical methods back into a geocentric system, rejecting heliocentric cosmology on physical and theological grounds. In Reinhold's unpublished commentary on De revolutionibus, he calculated the distance from the Earth to the sun. He "massaged" his calculation method in order to arrive at an answer close to that of Ptolemy. [WPR 47]
G Julius Caesar Scaliger 16th Italian scholar and physician, who influenced Kepler, though he rejected the discoveries of Copernicus. He was guided by Aristotle in metaphysics and in natural history. Leibniz and William Hamilton recognized him as the best modern exponent of the physics and metaphysics of Aristotle. [WPR 48]
H Christian Wurstisen 16th Swiss mathematician, theologician and historian. The second edition of Nicolaus Copernicus's De revolutionibus orbium coelestium had been printed in Basel. Wurstisen is credited to have first introduced Copernicus' work to Galileo Galilei, while Galilei's adoption of heliocentrism was often attributed to Michael Maestlin. Christian Wurstisen is mentioned by name in Galileo's Dialogue. This attribution has been challenged, however, and another similarly named man, Christopher Wursteisen, has been credited with introducing Copernicus's theories to Padua. [WPR 49]
H Thomas Digges 16th English mathematician and astronomer, translated Copernicus' work in English. He attempted to determine the parallax of the 1572 supernova observed by Tycho Brahe, and concluded it had to be beyond the orbit of the Moon. This contradicted the accepted view of the universe, according to which no change could take place among the fixed stars. [WPR 50]
H Christoph Rothmann 16th German mathematician and astronomer. [WPR 51]
T Valentin Naboth 16th German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, author of a general textbook on astrology Enarratio elementorum astrologiae. Renowned for calculating the mean annual motion of the Sun, his writings are chiefly devoted to commenting upon Ptolemy and the Arabian astrologers. [WPR 52]
T Paul Wittich 16th German mathematician and astronomer, who may have inspired Tycho Brahe for his Tychonic system. He may have been influenced by Valentin Naboth's book Primarum de coelo et terra in adopting the Capellan system to explain the motion of the inferior planets. It is evident from Wittich's diagram of his Capellan system that the Martian orbit does not intersect the solar orbit nor those of Mercury and Venus. [WPR 53]
T Francesco Maurolico 16th Sicilian mathematician and astronomer, sighted the supernova that appeared in Cassiopeia in 1572, known as Tycho's Supernova of 1574. His De Sphaera Liber Unus (1575) contains a fierce attack against Copernicus' heliocentrism, in which Maurolico writes that Copernicus "deserved a whip or a scourge rather than a refutation". [WPR 54]
T Nicolaus Reimers 16th German mathematician and astronomer to Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II. [WPR 55]
G Christopher Clavius 16th/17th German Jesuit mathematician and astronomer. [WPR 56]
G Giovanni Antonio Magini 16th/17th Italian astronomer, astrologer, cartographer, and mathematician. In 1588 he was chosen over Galileo Galilei to occupy the chair of mathematics at the University of Bologna. Magini supported a geocentric system of the world, in preference to Copernicus's heliocentric system. Magini devised his own planetary theory, in preference to other existing ones. The Maginian System consisted of eleven rotating spheres, which he described in his Novæ cœlestium orbium theoricæ congruentes cum observationibus N. Copernici (1589). He corresponded with Tycho Brahe, Clavius, Abraham Ortelius, and Johann Kepler. [WPR 57]
G David Gans 16th/17th Jewish-German chronicler, mathematician, historian, astronomer and astrologer. He settled about 1564 in Prague, where he came into contact with Kepler and Tycho Brahe, and took part for three consecutive days in astronomical observations at the Prague observatory. He also carried on a scientific correspondence with Regiomontanus, and was charged by Tycho Brahe with the translation of the Alfonsine Tables from Hebrew into German. Although acquainted with the work of Copernicus, Gans followed the Ptolemaic system, attributing the Copernican system to the Pythagoreans. [WPR 58]
G Johannes van Heeck 16th/17th Dutch physician, naturalist, alchemist and astrologer. After traveling through Europe, he settled in Prague at the court of Emperor Rudolf II, who had been patron to Tycho Brahe until his death in 1601, and at the time of van Heeck's arrival, was still patron to Johan Kepler. Both Lodovico delle Colombe and Kepler published their accounts of Kepler's Supernova (1604) in 1606. Van Heeck was ready to publish before them, sending his manuscript of De Nova Stella Disputatio ('Discussion of the New Star') to Federico Cesi in Rome in January 1605. Using techniques developed by Tycho Brahe, he concluded that the supernova showed no sign of parallax, meaning it must have been located among the 'fixed' stars of the firmament. He agreed with Tycho Brahe, however he reconciled this conclusion with the Aristotelian model. Cesi greatly esteemed Kepler, and therefore edited van Heeck's text, removing anything hostile to him or to other astronomers. He also removed much of the defence of the Aristotelian cosmology, as it was important for the Accademia to align itself to new astronomical discoveries. Van Heeck was furious at these editorial changes. [WPR 59]
H Michael Maestlin 16th/17th German astronomer and mathematician, known for being the mentor of Johannes Kepler. Although he primarily taught the traditional geocentric Ptolemaic view of the solar system, Maestlin was also one of the first to accept and teach the heliocentric Copernican view. Maestlin corresponded with Kepler frequently and played a sizable part in his adoption of the Copernican system. Galileo Galilei's adoption of heliocentrism was also attributed to Maestlin. He observed the Great Comet of 1577, as did Tycho Brahe and Helisaeus Roeslin, as well as described the occultation of Mars by Venus on 13 October 1590. [WPR 60]
H Christoph Grienberger 16th/17th Austrian Jesuit astronomer who supported Galilei. [WPR 61]
H Odo van Maelcote 16th/17th Southern-Dutch (Belgian) Jesuit astronomer and mathematician who supported Galilei. [WPR 62]
[WPR 63]
[WPR 64]
G Giuseppe 16th/17th Italian Jesuit astronomer, mathematician and selenographer. Very much opposed to the Copernican model. [WPR 65]
T Biancani
T Johannes Praetorius 16th/17th German mathematician and astronomer. [WPR 66]
T Helisaeus Roeslin 16th/17th German physician and astrologer who adopted a geoheliocentric model of the universe. He was one of five observers who concluded that the Great Comet of 1577 was located beyond the Moon. Roeslin had known Johannes Kepler since their student days and was one of his correspondents. Roeslin placed more emphasis on astrological predictions than did Kepler, and though he respected Kepler as a mathematician, he rejected some of Kepler's cosmological principles, including Copernican theory. [WPR 67]
T Simon Marius 16th/17th German astronomer, who in 1614 published his work Mundus Iovialis describing the planet Jupiter and its moons. He discovered the planet's four major moons some days before Galileo Galilei. Marius concluded that the geocentric Tychonic system, in which the planets circle the Sun while the Sun circles the Earth, must be the correct world system, or model of the universe. [17]
[WPR 68]
H David Fabricius 16th/17th Jewish-German pastor and astronomer who corresponded with Kepler, discovered the first variable star in 1596 and with his son Johannes sunspots independently from Galilei. Besides these two discoveries, little else is known about David Fabricius except his unusual manner of death: after denouncing a local goose thief from the pulpit, the accused man struck him in the head with a shovel and killed him. [WPR 69]
H Johannes Fabricius 17th Jewish-German astronomer who with his father David discovered sunspots independently from Galilei. He produced the first publication of sunspots. [WPR 70]
H Christiaan Huygens 17th Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution. Inventor of the telescope and discoverer of Titan, largest moon of Saturn, published in Systema saturnium in 1659. [WPR 71]
H Johannes Hevelius 17th Polish-Lithuanian astronomer who described the rotation of sunspots, described new constellations, discovered the Moon's libration and was the first to describe comets as in a parabolic path around the Sun. [WPR 72]
H Robert Hooke 17th English natural philosopher, architect and polymath, who tried to measure the distance to stars and was an early observer of the rings of Saturn, discovered one of the first observed double-star systems, Gamma Arietis, in 1664. Famous for Hooke's law. [WPR 73]
T/U? Willebrord Snellius 17th Dutch astronomer and mathematician, who has met Tycho Brahe and Kepler and was not convinced of the Copernican model. In 1615, he estimated the circumference of the Earth at 38,653 km, actually 40,075 kilometers, so Snellius underestimated the circumference of the earth by 3.5%. Famous for his rediscovery of the law of refraction (1621), known as Snell's law. [WPR 74]
H Edmond Halley 17th/18th English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist. Computed the orbit of Halley's comet. He was a Hollow Earther. [WPR 75]
H Johann Gabriel 18th German mathematician, astronomer, and cartographer who produced side-by-side maps of the Copernican and Tychonian models with a preference for the former. [WPR 76]
T Doppelmayr
H Charles Messier 18th French astronomer most notable for publishing an astronomical catalogue consisting of nebulae and star clusters that came to be known as the 110 "Messier objects". [WPR 77]
H Anders Celsius 18th Swedish astronomer, physicist and mathematician, who first made the connection between the aurora borealis with magnetism, established the Earth is flattened spheroid and became the father of the Celsius temperature scale. [WPR 78]
H Giuseppe Piazzi 18th/19th Italian priest, mathematician and astronomer who discovered dwarf planet Ceres. [WPR 79]
H Barnaba Oriani 18th/19th Italian priest, geodesist and astronomer who described the obliquity of the ecliptic and orbital theory, his greatest achievement was his detailed research of the planet Uranus, calculating its orbital properties, not on a parabolic orbit but rather in a roughly circular orbit, he calculated the orbit in 1783. In 1789, Oriani improved his calculations by accounting for the gravitational effects of Jupiter and Saturn. [WPR 80]
H Eise Eisinga 18th/19th Frisian amateur astronomer who built the oldest-existing functioning planetarium in the world. [WPR 81]
H Pierre-Simon Laplace 18th/19th French mathematician, physicist and astronomer who believed in the aether, but returned to Newton's gravitational theory. Considered the "Newton of France". [WPR 82]
H William Herschel 18th/19th German-English astronomer who improved determination of the rotation period of Mars, the discovery that the Martian polar caps vary seasonally, the discovery of the moons of Uranus Titania and Oberon and Enceladus and Mimas of Saturn. In addition, Herschel discovered infrared radiation. [WPR 83]
H John Herschel 19th English polymath, mathematician, astronomer, chemist, inventor, and experimental photographer. He originated the use of the Julian day system in astronomy and named seven moons of Saturn and four moons of Uranus. Involved in the Beavers on the Moon astronomy hoax. [WPR 84]
H James South 19th British astronomer who together with John Herschel produced a catalogue of 380 double stars in 1824, reobserving many of the double stars that had been discovered by William Herschel. He observed another 458 double stars over the following year. [WPR 85]
H Friedrich von Struve 19th German-Russian astronomer and geodesist, discovered a very large number of double stars and in 1827 published his double star catalogue Catalogus novus stellarum duplicium. He was also the first to measure the parallax of Vega. [WPR 86]
H Angelo Secchi 19th Italian Jesuit astronomer, one of the first scientists to state authoritatively that the Sun is a star, revised Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve's catalog of double stars, compiling data for over 10,000 binaries, discovered three comets, and drew some of the first color illustrations of Mars, the first to describe "channels" (canali) on the surface. He observed and made drawings of solar eruptions and sunspots, and compiled records of sunspot activity, proved that the solar corona and coronal prominences observed during a solar eclipse were part of the Sun, and not artifacts of the eclipse and discovered solar spicules. [WPR 87]
H Urbain Le Verrier 19th French mathematician who predicted the location of Neptune. [WPR 88]
H Johann Gottfried Galle 19th German astronomer who discovered Neptune. [WPR 89]
H William Lassell 19th English merchant and astronomer who discovered Triton, the largest moon of Neptune, co-discovered Hyperion, a moon of Saturn and Ariel and Umbriel, two moons of Uranus. [WPR 90]
H Asaph Hall 19th American astronomer who discovered Phobos and Deimos, the moons of Mars. [WPR 91]
H Clyde Tombaugh 20th American astronomer who discovered (now dwarf-) planet Pluto. [WPR 92]
H Gerard Kuiper 20th Dutch-American astronomer who discovered Miranda, moon of Uranus and Nereid, moon of Neptune. The Kuiper Belt is named after him. Was involved in "selecting landing sites for the Apollo program". [WPR 93]

See also



  1. TYCHOS.info
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Clues Chronicle 25 - TYCHOS
  3. 3.0 3.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 1
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 TYCHOS - Chapter 35
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 TYCHOS - Chapter 7
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 TYCHOS - Chapter 9
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 TYCHOS - Chapter 36
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 TYCHOS - Chapter 6
  9. Adaptive Optics
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 TYCHOS - Chapter 34
  11. 11.0 11.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 28
  12. TYCHOS - Chapter 8
  13. TYCHOS - Chapter 18
  14. 14.0 14.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 22
  15. 15.0 15.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 12
  16. 16.0 16.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 11
  17. TYCHOS - Chapter 15
  18. TYCHOS - Chapter 20
  19. 19.0 19.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 26
  20. TYCHOS - Chapter 25
  21. 21.0 21.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 16
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 TYCHOS - Chapter 27
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 TYCHOS - Chapter 24
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.5 24.6 TYCHOS - Chapter 31
  25. 25.0 25.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 23
  26. 26.0 26.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 32
  27. TYCHOS - Chapter 33
  28. TYCHOS - Chapter 17
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 TYCHOS - Chapter 19
  30. 30.0 30.1 TYCHOS - Preface
  31. TYCHOS - Chapter 5
  32. 32.0 32.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 21
  33. Tychosium 2D
  34. Tychosium 3D demo by Patrix
  35. 35.0 35.1 TYCHOS - Chapter 30
  36. Cluesforum - Parallax and skies throughout the year
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 37.3 37.4 37.5 Thunderbolts.info - The TYCHOS: our geoaxial binary system
  38. Animation of Mercury around the Sun
  39. TYCHOS - Chapter 10
  40. Animation of Venus around the Sun
  41. Animation of Mars around the Sun
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 42.3 42.4 TYCHOS - Chapter 29
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 43.4 TYCHOS - Chapter 3
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 44.4 44.5 44.6 TYCHOS - Chapter 14
  45. TYCHOS - Chapter 4
  46. TYCHOS - Epilogue
  47. TYCHOS - about the author
  48. TYCHOS - Chapter 2
  49. TYCHOS - Chapter 13
  50. Karl-Heinz Homann
  51. Howard Margolis (1998)
  52. James Schombert
  53. Walter Cruttenden


Terms in Wikipedia

Celestial bodies in Wikipedia

  1. List of nearest bright stars
  2. Earth
  3. Sun
  4. Moon
  5. Mercury
  6. Venus
  7. Mars
  8. Jupiter
  9. Saturn
  10. Uranus
  11. Neptune
  12. Pluto
  13. Phobos
  14. Deimos
  15. Ganymede
  16. Io
  17. Europa
  18. Callisto
  19. Titan
  20. Iapetus
  21. Rhea
  22. Tethys
  23. Dione
  24. Enceladus
  25. Mimas
  26. Triton
  27. Titania
  28. Oberon
  29. Ariel
  30. Umbriel
  31. Miranda
  32. Main Asteroid Belt
  33. Kuiper Belt
  34. Sirius
  35. Vega
  36. Fomalhaut
  37. Fomalhaut b
  38. Deneb
  39. Alpha Centauri
  40. Proxima Centauri
  41. Proxima Centauri b
  42. Regulus
  43. Polaris
  44. Gamma Draconis
  45. Delta Capricorni
  46. Tau Ceti
  47. Thuban
  48. Epsilon Eridani
  49. Beta Pictoris
  50. 61 Cygni
  51. 55 Cancri
  52. 55 Cancri c
  53. Barnard's Star
  54. Canopus
  55. Arcturus
  56. Capella
  57. Rigel
  58. Procyon
  59. Betelgeuse
  60. Achernar
  61. Beta Centauri
  62. Altair
  63. Alpha Crucis
  64. Aldebaran
  65. Antares
  66. Spica
  67. Pollux
  68. Pollux b
  69. Mimosa
  70. Bellatrix
  71. Pleiades
  72. Gamma Crucis
  73. Alnilam
  74. Alnitak
  75. Alioth
  76. Dubhe
  77. Alkaid
  78. Castor
  79. Mizar
  80. Saiph
  81. Algol
  82. Mintaka
  83. Merak
  84. Phecda
  85. Alderamin
  86. Megrez
  87. 82 G. Eridani
  88. 61 Virginis
  89. 66 G. Centauri
  90. Gliese 785
  91. Gliese 892
  92. Gliese 667
  93. HD 40307
  94. HD 85512
  95. Gliese 832
  96. Kapteyn's Star
  97. Kapteyn b
  98. Gliese 687
  99. Gliese 674
  100. Gliese 433
  101. Luyten's Star
  102. Luyten b
  103. Gliese 176
  104. Wolf 1061
  105. GJ 625
  106. TRAPPIST-1
  107. Gliese 849
  108. Gliese 581
  109. Gliese 180
  110. Ross 128
  111. Ross 128 b
  112. YZ Ceti
  113. LHS 1723
  114. Large Magellanic Cloud
  115. Andromeda Galaxy
  116. Comet_of_1472
  117. Great Comet of 1556
  118. Tycho's Supernova
  119. Great Comet of 1577
  120. Kepler's Supernova

Researchers in Wikipedia

  1. Tycho Brahe
  2. Hipparchus
  3. Sosigenes of Alexandria
  4. Ptolemy
  5. Aztec calendar
  6. Maya astronomy
  7. Nilakantha Somayaji
  8. Longomontanus
  9. Nicolaus Copernicus
  10. Galileo Galilei
  11. Johannes Kepler
  12. Giovanni Cassini
  13. Giovanni Riccioli
  14. Cristoph Scheiner
  15. Isaac Newton
  16. Ole Roemer
  17. James Bradley
  18. Pathani Samanta
  19. Friedrich Bessel
  20. Simon Newcomb
  21. Rudolf Steiner
  22. Albert Einstein
  23. John Knight Fotheringham
  24. Robert Russell Newton
  25. Vittorio Goretti
  26. Theodor Landscheidt
  27. Howard Margolis
  28. Anaxagoras
  29. Aristotle
  30. Heraclides Pontius
  31. Theophrastus
  32. Eratosthenes
  33. Aristarchus of Samos
  34. Seleucus of Seleucia
  35. Macrobius
  36. Martianus Capella
  37. Aryabhata
  38. Azophi
  39. Alhazen
  40. Avicenna
  41. Avempace
  42. Averroes
  43. Al Shirazi
  44. Ulugh Beg
  45. Muisca astronomy
  46. Regiomontanus
  47. Erasmus Reinhold
  48. Julius Caesar Scaliger
  49. Christian Wurstisen
  50. Thomas Digges
  51. Christoph Rothmann
  52. Valentin Naboth
  53. Paul Wittich
  54. Francesco Maurolico
  55. Nicolaus Reimers
  56. Christopher Clavius
  57. Giovanni Antonio Magini
  58. David Gans
  59. Johannes van Heeck
  60. Michael Maestlin
  61. Christoph Grienberger
  62. Odo van Maelcote (it)
  63. Odo van Maelcote (fr)
  64. Odo van Maelcote (de)
  65. Giuseppe Biancani
  66. Johannes Praetorius
  67. Helisaeus Roeslin
  68. Simon Marius
  69. David Fabricius
  70. Johannes Fabricius
  71. Christiaan Huygens
  72. Johannes Hevelius
  73. Robert Hooke
  74. Willebrord Snellius
  75. Edmond Halley
  76. Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr
  77. Charles Messier
  78. Anders Celsius
  79. Giuseppe Piazzi
  80. Barnaba Oriani
  81. Eise Eisinga
  82. Pierre-Simon Laplace
  83. William Herschel
  84. John Herschel
  85. James South
  86. Friedrich von Struve
  87. Angelo Secchi
  88. Urbain Le Verrier
  89. Johann Gottfried Galle
  90. William Lassell
  91. Asaph Hall
  92. Clyde Tombaugh
  93. Gerard Kuiper

Other links

External links



Galileo affair