Lake Nyos Cameroon CO2 gas leak disaster, 8-21-86.

Corona main Forums Other PsyOps/Hoaxes Lake Nyos Cameroon CO2 gas leak disaster, 8-21-86.

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  • #14637
    jimbo
    Participant

    The lake that passed deadly gas.

    When this disaster happened at Lake Nyos(Pronounced nee oews) I was amazed this could happen. Deaths reported from 1,700 to 2,000 people and 3,500 livestock.
    This event popped into my head today and I thought it could be a made up event. Well, the numbers given in the book of knowledge look suspicious.

    Wikipedia:
    “Lake Nyos is a crater lake in the Northwest Region of Cameroon, located about 315 km (196 mi) northwest of Yaoundé.[1] Nyos is a deep lake high on the flank of an inactive volcano in the Oku volcanic plain along the Cameroon line of volcanic activity. A volcanic dam impounds the lake waters.

    A pocket of magma lies beneath the lake and leaks carbon dioxide (CO2) into the water, changing it into carbonic acid. Nyos is one of only three known exploding lakes to be saturated with carbon dioxide in this way, the others being Lake Monoun, also in Cameroon, and Lake Kivu in Democratic Republic of Congo. On August 21, 1986, possibly as the result of a landslide, Lake Nyos suddenly emitted a large cloud of CO2, which suffocated 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages.[2] [3] Though not completely unprecedented, it was the first known large-scale asphyxiation caused by a natural event. To prevent a recurrence, a degassing tube that siphons water from the bottom layers of water to the top allowing the carbon dioxide to leak in safe quantities was installed in 2001, and two additional tubes were installed in 2011″.

    “Lake Nyos fills a roughly circular maar in the Oku Volcanic Field, an explosion crater caused when a lava flow interacted violently with groundwater. The maar is believed to have formed in an eruption about 400 years ago, and is 1,800 m (5,900 ft) across and 208 m (682 ft) deep.[6] The area has been volcanically active for millions of years—after South America and Africa were split apart by plate tectonics about 110 million years ago, West Africa also experienced rifting, although to a lesser degree. The rift is known as the Mbéré Rift Valley, and crustal extension has allowed magma to reach the surface along a line extending through Cameroon. Mount Cameroon also lies on this fault line. Lake Nyos is surrounded by old lava flows and pyroclastic deposits.

    Although Nyos is situated within an extinct volcano, magma still exists beneath it. Approximately 80 kilometres (50 mi) directly below the lake resides a pool of magma, which releases carbon dioxide and other gases; the gases then travel upward through the earth. The fumes then dissolve in the natural springs encircling the lake, ultimately rising to the surface of the water and leading into the lake.[7]

    The lake waters are held in place by a natural dam composed of volcanic rock. At its narrowest point, the wall measures 40 metres (130 ft) high and 45 metres (148 ft) wide”.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Nyos

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    It is all around you.
    Even in the very room you are sitting in reading this.
    You can see it when you look out of the window, or when you turn on the TV.
    You can feel it when you go to work. When you go to church.
    When you pay your taxes.
    It is the wool that has been pulled over your eyes to blind you from the truth.

    #16835
    Tom Dalpra
    Participant

    Lake Nyos suddenly emitted a large cloud of CO2, which suffocated 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages. Though not completely unprecedented, it was the first known large-scale asphyxiation caused by a natural event.

    Never happened before? Not in recorded history?

    A dirty great cloud of deadly CO2?

    Mmmm yyyeeess, well that was certainly a bit of timely World CO2 alarmism jimbo contrived or not…

    Of course having ‘happened’ once they can drip-feed the potential of another deadly release of the terrible gas through the years, indefinitely. It becomes another lingering ‘menace’. A CO2 menace to compliment the other looming CO2 menace which was and is: Global Warming and Climate Change.
    An assertion of just how deadly CO2 can be, sitting there…bubbling.

    Lake Nyos a scam Jimbo? I don’t know, but that’s where my money would be right now.

    Good call I reckon.

    .
    fd

    fd

    http://www.neatorama.com/2007/05/21/the-strangest-disaster-of-the-20th-century/#!bMyjuw

    DalTampra

    #19263
    xileffilex
    Participant

    There’s a bit literature dump here, not terribly recent:
    http://www-personal.umich.edu/~gwk/research/nyos_pubs.htm

    One referene stands out which mentions a previous event in Asia, only 7 years previously…
    149 people apparently died at Lake Deng in Indonesia caused by gas leaks, Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulphide. 17,000 evacuated.
    http://www.volcanolive.com/dieng.html

    Right on cue, last week, Nyos is 85% degassed and survivors are going to return….
    http://www.cameroonweb.com/CameroonHomePage/regional/artikel.php?ID=309779

    Lake Nyos survivors in the Boyo camps of Kimbi and Buabua will on Monday, August 25, 2014 be privileged with gifts worth over CFA 33 million from the Minister of Territorial Administration and Decentralisation.

    The gifts are summed up in food supplies, sanitary kids and didactic materials for the pupils, students and adults of the camps.

    The Kimbi and Buabua camps in Boyo Division harbour 239 households, covering 2616 people, away from the five survivor resettlement camps in Menchum Division that received similar gifts last year.

    #19265
    xileffilex
    Participant

    Lake Nyos survivors in the Boyo camps of Kimbi and Buabua will on Monday, August 25, 2014 be privileged with gifts worth over CFA 33 million from the Minister of Territorial Administration and Decentralisation.

    The gifts are summed up in food supplies, sanitary kids and didactic materials for the pupils, students and adults of the camps.

    The Kimbi and Buabua camps in Boyo Division harbour 239 households, covering 2616 people, away from the five survivor resettlement camps in Menchum Division that received similar gifts last year.
    http://www.cameroonweb.com/CameroonHomePage/regional/artikel.php?ID=309779

    BTW 149 died and 17,000 were evacuated in a Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide leak from Lake Dieng in Indonesia in 1979
    http://www.volcanolive.com/dieng.html

    #19284
    xileffilex
    Participant

    What of survivors? It seems obvious that some on the edge of the alleged fatal area would have possibly nearly died but survived because the CO2 concentration was not fatal.
    Here’s a New Zealand study
    http://www.massey.ac.nz/~trauma/issues/2011-1/fomine.htm
    abstrct:

    At about 9 p. m. on Thursday 21 August 1986 in Cameroon an enormous volume of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas was released from Lake Nyos, a volcanic crater lake in Cameroon. The gas flowed down towards nearby settlements and killed approximately 1,800 people, 3000 cattle, and countless wild animals, birds and insects – in short almost every living creature for miles around. The official human death toll was only an estimate, the reason being that before competent authorities who collected statistics on the mortality rate could reach the disaster area, some survivors had already begun to bury victims in mass graves, and many terrified survivors had even fled corpse-filled villages and hid themselves in the forest. The impact of this event resulted in the massive involuntary resettlement of people from nearby settlements.

    The villages that were most affected by the disaster included Cha, Subum and Nyos, situated in Fungom periphery in the North West Region (previously North West Province) of Cameroon. It took two days for a medical team to arrive the lake site after local officials had called the Governor of the Northwest Region to report the strange occurrence. When the doctors and other medical personnel arrived at the lake, they found an unthinkable catastrophe and a fatal disaster far greater than they could have imagined. This article sets out to decipher and unravel the origins of the disaster, its far-reaching effects and how it led to forced human migration and massive involuntary resettlement in the region.

    About 15,000 inhabitants fled the area, as many of them developed respiratory problems, lesions and paralysis as a result of gases they inhaled.

    paralysis, gases?

    and then…

    Some critics hold the view that the Lake Nyos gas disaster was not natural. According to them, the disaster was caused by a bomb that was tested by the Israeli Government in collaboration with the Government of Cameroon. The evidence put forward by these critics is that a few hours after the lake Nyos gas disaster occurred, the Israeli forces were already at the disaster site, even before information could reach authorities in Wum, the then capital of Menchum Division.

    As local residents’ versions concerning the origins of the Lake Nyos gas disaster were varied, so too were scientists’ versions. Seven months after the disaster, President Paul Biya of Cameroon summoned an international conference that brought together scientists from different academic disciplines to unravel the causes of the unprecedented calamity. One hundred scientists and other experts from different countries sat in the conference hall in Yaounde from 16 to 20 March 1987 in an acrimonious debate to reveal the results of their findings. At the end of the conference, the experts were neatly divided into two camps (volcanologists and limnologists). Scientists from the United States of America, Cameroon, Israel, Britain, Switzerland and Japan ascribed to the limnological theory. According to this theory, carbonic gas of magmatic origin had been slowly accumulating in the lake long before it was released by the interaction of a yet unspecific trigger event. According to them, there was no direct volcanic explosion ( Cameroon, 1987). The volcanologists explained an observed phenomenon which pointed to a phreatic eruption, which did not involve fresh magma, but only superheated water flashing to steam. According to them, the phreatic explosion occurred on the bed of the lake (Smith, 2007). Another explanation by Smith suggested that cool rainwater falling on one side of the lake triggered the overturn of the CO2 layer.

    The pathologists who studied the fatalities of the Nyos tragedy were convinced that the victims died of asphyxiation, secondary to exposure to the carbon dioxide gas cloud. The entire medical evidence collected by national and foreign physicians indicated that carbon dioxide was the lethal toxic agent. Whatever the cause, the event resulted from the rapid mixing of the CO2 supersaturated deep water with the upper layers of the lake, where the reduced pressure allowed the stored CO2 to effervesce out of solution.

    On Thursday, 21 August 1986, after it had rained very hard, an unprecedented event occurred in Nyos – the lake Nyos gas disaster. By 9:30 p.m, the heavy down pour ceased and the weather became conducive for normal evening activities. This tranquil atmosphere was suddenly disturbed by a series of rumbling sounds which are said to have lasted just for a few minutes. Many people on hearing this sound came out and smelled a smell akin to gun powder and rotten eggs. Some immediately felt hot and lost consciousness without any preliminary symptoms. Those who could not resist the inhaled gas perished instantly. Many survivors of this fatal incident woke up 6-16 hours later
    The government administrators in Wum received verbal news about the disaster from Emmanuel Ngu Mbi (chief of Sebum Health Centre) who slept in Wum on the day of the disaster. On the morning of August 22, 1986, he hopped onto his bicycle and began riding from Wum towards Nyos. When he reached Cha, he smelled something strange, felt dizzy and fell unconscious. He slept there and woke up at 8.35a.m and continued his journey.
    Soon he came upon a group of huts at Nyos. He decided to see if anyone there knew what had happened to the animals. But surprisingly, as he walked up to the huts he was stunned to see dead bodies strewn everywhere. He did not find even a single person still alive – everyone in the huts was dead. He immediately threw down his bicycle and ran all the way back to Wum to report the calamity

    Mbi finally got to Wum at 10:40 a.m and reported the event immediately to his boss, Anthony Wango Wabua, Assistant Chief of Preventive Medicine, who then alerted the medical doctor, the Senior Divisional Officer of Menchum Region and finally the public security. The public security officers then sent a message to the Governor of the North West Region who in turn informed the presidency of the Republic of Cameroon. Within a few hours, the news spread like a wild fire throughout Cameroon and the world. Scientists and non-scientists commenced their search for the cause of the disaster in a manner comparable to the approach adopted by police officers to investigate crimes..

    #19286
    xileffilex
    Participant

    This Professor George W Kling from the USA seems to be the go-to person in all aspects of research here.
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4285878.stm
    #In 2005, it says 75% of the CO2 will be removed in 5 years…now we learn this week that 85 per cent is removed…like no more is being produced….
    from the same BBC in 1986, reported again in 2010…
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/21/newsid_3380000/3380803.stm

    The gas killed all living things within a 15-mile (25km) radius of the lake, and the area is still highly contaminated.

    A doctor there said they had been poisoned by a mixture of gases including hydrogen and sulphur.

    He described the symptoms, including burning pains in the eyes and nose, coughing and signs of asphyxiation similar to strangulation, as like being gassed by a kitchen stove.

    Eyewitnesses described how the normally clear waters of the lake turned a reddish brown, while a sudden wind arose and whipped up huge waves.

    The gas is believed to have overwhelmed at least three villages.

    The entire population of one of the villages is thought to have been killed.

    There was a similar escape of toxic gases at a nearby lake in the same volcanic crater two years ago which killed 37 people.

    The Israeli Prime Minister, Shimon Peres, has said he will not cancel his state visit to Cameroon, due to start on Monday.

    He said he would be bringing a medical team and equipment for treating the victims.

    Two forensic pathologists were sent to Nyos..from the US
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3139823#

    J Forensic Sci. 1988 Jul;33(4):899-909.
    Medical evaluation of the victims of the 1986 Lake Nyos disaster.
    Wagner GN1, Clark MA, Koenigsberg EJ, Decata SJ.
    Author information

    * 1Department of Forensic Sciences, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC.

    Abstract

    A cloud of carbon dioxide gas, with an estimated volume of 1 km3 was released from Lake Nyos, a volcanic crater lake in Cameroon, Africa, causing 1700 to 2000 human fatalities as well as killing thousands of livestock and wild animals. At the request of the Cameroonian Government, the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance of the U.S. Department of State sent a multidisciplinary team which included 2 forensic pathologists to assist the Government of Cameroon in investigating this natural disaster. The medical evaluation was concentrated in 3 areas: the autopsy of human and animal fatalities, examination and interview of survivors, and examination of the scene of the disaster. Toxicologic specimens were obtained at autopsy, and numerous samples of lake water were collected. The autopsy findings were consistent with asphyxia. The results of chemical analyses excluded many volatiles but not carbon dioxide as the toxic agent. The exact source of this gas continues to be a subject of a heated geologic debate, but fermentation of organic materials in the lake water has been eliminated on the basis of C14 isotope studies. This investigation underlines the value of forensic pathologists in epidemiological studies and in the examination of living persons.

    #22358
    Tom Dalpra
    Participant

    xileffilex – I’ve just caught up and read all that. Good to catch-up on a bit of xileffilex research.( What about our old ‘mate’ psyopticon? In retrospect we were right about Hillsborough, I think. Neither of us bought his line there.)

    LAKE NYOS? It stinks.

    My favourite bit is the guy Emmanuel from the Sebum Health Centre- good witness that always – a Healthcare professional. He’d know if someone was dead or just resting.

    I read through his child-like story with a ”yeh right” smile on my face and then cracked-up with the final image of him flinging his bicycle down and running back to tell everyone. Smart move Mannie.

    The government administrators in Wum received verbal news about the disaster from Emmanuel Ngu Mbi (chief of Sebum Health Centre) who slept in Wum on the day of the disaster. On the morning of August 22, 1986, he hopped onto his bicycle and began riding from Wum towards Nyos. When he reached Cha, he smelled something strange, felt dizzy and fell unconscious. He slept there and woke up at 8.35a.m and continued his journey.
    Soon he came upon a group of huts at Nyos. He decided to see if anyone there knew what had happened to the animals. But surprisingly, as he walked up to the huts he was stunned to see dead bodies strewn everywhere. He did not find even a single person still alive – everyone in the huts was dead. He immediately threw down his bicycle and ran all the way back to Wum to report the calamity

    I don’t mean to be silly about all this. I mean, that stuff looked deadly from some of the photos.

    Not to mention, extremely messy.

    kj

    http://sdstc.pl/tag/nyos

    ONE POSSIBLE SCENARIO: The guy in the centre was drunk out of his mind. He fell back and dropped his glass and passed-out at the same time as his mate on the bed. Next thing someone ran in with a flour bomb. ”Boom!” – it’s like Al Pacino’s desk at the end of Scarface. Crack-off a couple of snaps and say:

    ”C02 done it.”

    http://www.sveurop.org/gb/articles/articles/Lake%20Nyos.htm

    DalTampra

    #22391
    Tom Dalpra
    Participant

    These pure white cattle appear to have keeled-over but show no staining and there’s no sign of that powder. Maybe that was something that just happened in homes?

    ds

    DalTampra

    #22456
    xileffilex
    Participant

    What was the smell which was mentioned – usually H2S or SO2 from volcanic eruptions…
    1000 ppm of H2S -hydrogen sulfide – can cause rapid death; above 500 ppm it can still be fatal.

    800ppm is the generally accepted lethal concentration for 50% of an exposed human population for 5 minutes exposure (LC50).

    Some further details on concentrations and effects are given below:-

    0.0047 ppm is the recognition threshold of human smell, the concentration at which 50% of humans can detect the characteristic odour of hydrogen sulphide.

    i.e 200,000x the detection level. Thiosulfate ought to be detectable in blood or urine for this poisoning.
    http://www.hse.gov.uk/offshore/infosheets/is6-2009.htm
    but one would expect survivors on the periphery.

    For Carbon Dioxide poisoning:

    Concentrations >10% may cause convulsions, coma and death.

    i.e 100,000 ppm.

    The LC50 (Lethal Concentration which kills 50% of the exposed animals in 1 hour) is 4% for rats and 10% for humans. CO2 is heavier than air, so the concentration near the floor will be much higher.

    Co2 caused death can happen…
    http://www.whatmobile.net/2014/03/27/korean-samsung-worker-dies-carbon-dioxide-leak-factory/

    that’s a massive lake..
    5:15 AM – 27 Aug 2014

    http://www.toxipedia.org/display/toxipedia/Lake+Nyos;jsessionid=695AA16088109623B55A8400D3717431

    this well known photo

    is credited to “Jack Lockwood” of the US Geological Survey

    Lake Nyos is thermally stratified, with layers of warm, less dense water near the surface floating on the colder, denser water layers near the lake’s bottom. Over long periods, carbon dioxide gas seeping into the cold water at the lake’s bottom is dissolved in great amounts.

    Most of the time, the lake is stable and the CO2 remains in solution in the lower layers. However, over time the water becomes supersaturated, and if an event such as an earthquake or volcanic eruption occurs, large amounts of CO2 may suddenly come out of solution.

    1986 Event

    On August 21, 1986 a limnic eruption – occurs when CO2 suddenly erupts from deep lake water – occurred and triggered the release of about 1.6 million tonnes of CO2. Around a cubic kilometer of gas flowed from the mountain down into the two populated valleys below. The gas displaced all the air, suffocating 1800 people and 3500 livestock. Of the additional 4000 inhabitants who fled the valleys, many developed respiratory problems, burns and even paralysis from the gas.

    The cause of the disaster is still debated between geologists. Most geologists suspect a landslide while some believe that there was a small volcanic eruption at the base of the lake. Others still believe that cool rainwater that fell on one side of the lake triggered the overrun of the water. Whatever the cause of the dislocation, the gas-laden water of the bottom of the lake with the upper layers, where the reduced pressure allowed the gas to seep out.

    Seeping out? Quite the opposite of an eruption.
    Could have been man-made, if indeed any people really died.
    more from Jack – such a paucity of photos

    “at least 300 people were hospitalised” – what tests were done on them? How many survived? it is all so vague.

    another USGS pic…a few days later, apparently

    http://www.earth-of-fire.com/page/93


    http://www.usgs.gov/blogs/features/usgs_top_story/exploding-lakes-in-west-africa/
    February 8, 2012

    in 1994, USGS researchers discovered that large volumes of CO2 were seeping from beneath Mammoth Mountain, a young volcano in the Long Valley area of California. The seepage was triggered by a persistent swarm of earthquakes, and killed more than 100 acres of trees. The CO2also forced the U.S. Forest Service to close the area to camping.

    I am still having enourmous trouble visualising, when looking a photos of the lake from ground level, the eruption of Co2 from below; I also didn’t realise that the “venting pipe” took 15 years before it was installed.
    ..lets have a look at some videos next.

    #22457
    Tom Dalpra
    Participant

    ”Since this disastrous event, French scientists have implemented a degassing program. In 2001 they installed a pipe that runs to the bottom of the lake and allows the gas to escape at a regular rate. Two more pipes were added in 2011. A solar-powered alarm system monitors carbon dioxide levels, ensuring that, should the lake explode again, there will at least be a warning.”

    You’ve gotta love the solar powered alarm system haha. Oh the irony. If you’re steadfastly pumping out CO2 you’d best do what you can to reduce emissions!

    Is it me, or is this starting to seem like this was just the most incredible fart.

    DalTampra

    #22490
    Tom Dalpra
    Participant

    Yeh, I watched some BBC film on it yesterday. They kept mentioning the ‘smell of rotten eggs’
    But that’s hydrogen sulphide isn’t it?
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_sulfide

    Sorry, thinking out loud again. Yeh, let’s have a look at some more documentary.

    DalTampra

    #22491
    xileffilex
    Participant

    some good pics here Tom….science for the citizen. I must say, I find it most unsatisfying.

    Click to access 2LunchTuttlePC7.pdf


    check the skin lesions on survivors – that’s real baaaad Seeohhtooo….no mention of H2S there, which people said they smelled….ditto SO2,..it’s a volcanic lake yet these are not detected??
    A MORE DETAILED OFFICIAL NARRATIVE REPORT IS HERE

    Click to access report.pdf


    note that George Kling seems to have been studying the lake 15 months previously in May 1985, unpublished data….[p27]
    one sentence stands out…..
    “CO2 acts like an anesthetic and can produce hallucinations, such
    that many people exposed to CO2 will report the odor of sulfur compounds when
    none are present”

    is this BS??? They cite an obscure reference to support this…Clayton S White et al, Aviation Medicine, 1952.I also don’t quite buy the stratification argument, which is essential for the argument of sudden release of 1km cubed of CO2. The skin lesions are not accounted for, not resulting from CO2 clouds, obviously or hot gases. They are conveniently ignored.
    Autopsies – p.15 – seem almost non-existent. Similarly the “report” brushes over any cause for the release of gas.[alleged] It all just reads like fitting the data to fit the narrative and when it doesn’t, just ignore it. Like a cover up, but we don’t know what is being covered up.

    Note the use of Helimission in this event
    http://www.helimission.org/english/countries-of-operation/sos-operations

    On the morning of 22 August, people from the surrounding area
    started the grim task of recovery and burial. It was not until the morning of 24 August, after two Swiss missionary helicopter
    (Helimission) pilots flew into the area, that the “outside world”
    heard of the incident. Vegetation damage showed
    that a water surge had washed up the southern shore to a height of
    ~25 m.
    A water surge 6 m high had ?owed over the spillway at the
    northern end of the lake,

    Click to access p4798_0169.pdf


    [Science 236 [10 April 1987 169-175]

    #22493
    xileffilex
    Participant

    An early 1987 report on an international seminar on the event at Nyos at HiLo in the appropriately volcanic Hawaii….

    No significant amounts of gas were released while the scientists were on the scene, but on Dec. 30, according to local witnesses, the lake erupted three more times over a period of a few minutes. The witnesses were on a hillside high above the lake, and thus spared the devastation that swept silently through Nios last August.

    The findings confirmed earlier speculation that the victims died from carbon dioxide poisoning, but the scientists warned that Lake Nios could erupt again at any moment, and other volcanic areas around the world could face similar tragedies.

    What appears to makes the findings conclusive is the fact that all five teams were working independently, but they reached the same conclusion on what killed the people of Nios.

    “Each of us was at Cameroon at different times with different equipment,” said Jack Lockwood of the U.S. Geological Survey.

    That could explain why the teams reached different conclusions on how the gas was released. Some believe that there was a violent eruption of a volcanic nature. Others think that gas slowly seeped into the lake until it reached saturation, setting off a reaction that sent a giant plume of gas into the air in a process that is somewhat like popping the cork on a bottle of champagne.

    Whatever the cause of the release, all agree that the events sent a cloud of odorless, colorless carbon dioxide wafting up the valley toward the village of Nios. Nearly every living creature in its path was suffocated by the gas, which deprived the victims of oxygen when it was inhaled. The gas left at least 300 head of cattle lying lifeless on the grassy slopes of the lake.

    ‘Only Four Survived’

    “There were 1,200 people in the village,” said Michele Tuttle of the U.S. Geological Survey. “Only four survived.” The village is a little more than two miles from the lake.

    Others were killed in nearby areas, and the total number of deaths has been set at 1,700, she said.

    “But that is probably a conservative estimate,” she added. “Some have estimated the total may have gone as high as 3,000.” The exact number is uncerjtain because many bodies were buried quickly to reduce the chances of disease spreading throughout the area.

    “We were surprised to see no destruction due to an explosion,” said Francois Le Guern, a member of the French team who was one of the first scientists to arrive on the scene. He said a large volume of water had been blown out of the lake by whatever caused the gas release, but the homes appeared to be untouched.

    http://articles.latimes.com/1987-01-25/news/mn-5703_1_poison-gas
    Jan 25 1987
    hmmmm

    AND What tests were done on those remarkable 4 survivors, allegedly?
    it was reported on August 27 1986 that Tuttle from Denver, Lockwood from Hawaii and chemist Bill Evans from Menlo Park would go out to Nyos sharpish.All from the USGS..note the specualtion of Terrence Gerlach
    http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1346&dat=19860827&id=27EwAAAAIBAJ&sjid=ZPsDAAAAIBAJ&pg=5708,4621463
    I’d love to ask Donald Peterson about the missing volcanic gases…

    1985 before and after photos on page 1 here…

    Click to access Killer_lakes_lecture.pdf

    what were the geoscientists upto here in 1985?

    #22526
    Tom Dalpra
    Participant

    So from that Kiwi report it seems:

    The entire medical evidence collected by national and foreign physicians indicated that carbon dioxide was the lethal toxic agent. Whatever the cause, the event resulted from the rapid mixing of the CO2 supersaturated deep water with the upper layers of the lake, where the reduced pressure allowed the stored CO2 to effervesce out of solution.

    Read more: http://fakeologist.com/forums/topic/lake-nyos-cameroon-co2-gas-leak-disaster-8-21-86/#ixzz3CU0s1qdH

    So dress it up how you want, ‘effervesce out of solution’ even, but the official story says that a cloud of CO2 killed every thing.
    Co2 poisoning,
    a.k.a – Hypercapnia

    Causes of hypercapnia ( C02 poisoning ) ?

    I found this list, just on some random ‘science’ page, I’ll go with it:

    – initial effect of oxygen when administered to someone suffering from sleep apnea

    – breathing volcanic gas or gas from a geothermal vent = ( yeh direct from a vent, note! We’ve all done it:-)

    – rebreathing exhaled air (e.g., from breathing air in a bag, sleeping in a sealed tent, sleeping with a blanket over one’s head)

    – scuba diving, from skip breathing, improper air filtration or from taking fewer breaths, possibly as a result of the increased difficulty of breathing

    – breathing in confined spaces or areas with poor air circulation, such as a sealed room, a mine, a tunnel, a cargo hold, etc.

    and then – unconsciousness – yes, unconsciousness can cause hypercapnia we’re told. It’s what kills you when you suffocate if I’m reading it right.

    http://chemistry.about.com/od/drugs/a/Causes-Of-Carbon-Dioxide-Poisoning.htm

    It seems clear to me in the case of Nyos, that only on direct inhalation of a high concentration of CO2 for a certain period of time would an animal become unconscious.

    ONE QUESTION:

    Was Lake Nyos and the surrounding area well ventilated?

    ANSWER:

    fd

    Yes.

    CONCLUSION:

    The ”national and foreign physicians” are talking bullshit. It’s impossible.

    DalTampra

    #22527
    Tom Dalpra
    Participant

    Here’s the one I looked at with Kling, the man conveniently at Nyos 18 months before the shit- or perhaps ‘the fart’ in this case – hit the fan.

    DalTampra

    #22528
    Tom Dalpra
    Participant

    This is informative on Carbon Dioxide death from Boston University:

    Instructions: Carbon Dioxide Euthanasia

    CO2 Euthanasia Procedure 10-2013

    Background

    “Euthanasia” is a term meaning “good death”.

    The goal of euthanasia is to provide a rapid, painless, stress-free death. Carbon dioxide (CO2) overdose causes rapid unconsciousness followed by death. The CO? flow rate should displace 10% to 30% of the cage volume per minute. Exposure to CO2 without removing animals from their home cage is a rapid and humane method of euthanasia, because the animals are not stressed by handling or being moved to a new environment.

    Exposure to CO2 can cause deep narcosis that can appear to be, but is not, death. In such cases, animals that superficially appear to be dead may eventually awaken; this arousal can occur after the disposal of carcasses into refrigerators or freezers. Presumed death after exposure to carbon dioxide must be confirmed based on careful assessment of the animal for unambiguous signs of death, such as cardiac arrest or fixed, dilated pupils. CO? Narcosis must be followed with secondary method of euthanasia (i.e. cervical dislocation, thoracotomy, etc.)

    http://www.bu.edu/animalcare/lasc-bumc/guidelines/3-level-page/

    DalTampra

    #22625
    Tom Dalpra
    Participant

    I want to say at this point that obviously I personally don’t know that this was a big scam and nobody really died. I just hope so.

    I don’t mean to be blase about it. Certain things may sound absurd in the abstract like Emmanuel throwing his bike down and running for help, but, I might be wrong. I hope I’m not in a way, but I might be.

    —————————-

    Interesting Link
    ( http://www.as.utexas.edu/neal/nealfest_evans_w.pdf )

    I’m not quite sure what this is really. A University of Texas Geography department project? Pass. You tell me…’many collaborators’… The funny thing is, despite being able to pull holes in it, I do find the idea credible, to an extent ( note emphasis) as presented here.

    Click to access nealfest_evans_w.pdf

    The idea of the sinking pockets of CO2 in the lower areas does make some sense to me. A temporary micro-climate. As I say, I don’t know. Maybe it can do that…maybe. CO2 clouds like a liquid?…

    ————————————————-

    But…
    First heard of in 1979? I have to wonder where the historical accounts of ‘gas explosions’, and ‘invisible death’ are. It must have happened before?

    —————————————————-

    Furthermore the incredible coincidence of the only recorded previous limnic eruption also being in Cameroon at Lake Monoun ( just 100 km S/E of Lake Nyos) in 1984, causing the asphyxiation and death of 37 people living nearby. Just the same time of year.

    ”The victims were said to have skin burns, which reports later clarified as “skin damage” such as discoloration. Survivors reported that the whitish, smoke-like cloud smelled bitter and acidic. Vegetation was flattened around the eastern part of the lake, probably by a tsunami.”

    what the heck was it?

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Monoun#Disaster

    http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/current/lectures/kling/killer_lakes/killer_lakes.html

    Part of a programme I’d suggest.

    37 dead at Monoun in Cameroon just two years before the 17,000 of Nyos? Same deal, CO2 suffocation?
    Any good to anyone as psyOp numbers? 37 and 17,000? 37? Maybe MH 370 ?

    [Incidentally on 37 dead see also:

    37 dead in Cameroon:
    http://www.namibian.com.na/indexx.php?archive_id=1372&page_type=archive_story_detail&page=3864

    37 dead in Africa:
    http://www.vanguardngr.com/2014/02/boko-haram-attacks-kill-32-including-christian-college/

    37 dead as Pakistan jets target Taliban:
    http://www.dailystar.com.lb/…/254262-37-dead-as-pakistan-jets-target-taliban-… ]

    And then 17 as a follow up? MH 17?

    Ok the numbers may be a coincidence, but the two August Cameroon CO2 events having
    37 dead and 17,00 dead respectively has a neat numerical parallel to the contrived and naturally linked MH events, 370 AND 17, from this year.

    Whatever, the simple fact that the only two limnic ‘events’ like this, ever recorded, occurred 100km from each other exactly two years apart,
    means you have to really wonder anyway…

    DalTampra

    #22987
    xileffilex
    Participant

    Would like to know what Jimbo thinks now – well done for exhuming this one. Thanks Tom for your imput. The images of the tidal surge are so distant and blurred as to be meaningless.
    In that Texas pdf, [great find!] the study of Lake Monoun [Aug 1984] – hey, investigated 7 months later, that would bring Kling into the area too…

    …red-colored lake and evidence of large waves. Investigated 7 months later by Sigurdsson and Devine….Deep lakewater
    samples retrieved to the surface literally exploded
    with CO2 gas bubbles. No evidence of volcanic eruption.

    note now the tidal wave is 80m high!!!Not 25m as recorded, also implausible, elsewhere – this is astonishing.

    The Americans seems to have taken charge of these investigations from the off.
    That “dead cattle” image is everywhere, apparently the only one.

    I am very suspicious of everything here. I haven’t watched any vids yet, but will do so. So far, nothing stacks up at all.

    #23022
    Tom Dalpra
    Participant

    Yeh, thanks for the thread Jimbo! Great shout.
    You’ve certainly got xileffilex and I interested.

    If I now consider that Nyos and Monoun are both most likely ‘crocks of shit’-
    part of a co-ordinated programme of environmental scaremongering – then I
    have to look at the only other, the FIRST recorded instance of a deadly C02 gassing:

    Dieng Indonesia Feb 1979. This event was associated with an eruption
    from Sinila crater, but the cold CO2 gas was actually emitted from a distal fissure and
    flowed downslope like a river, killing 142 residents fleeing Kaputjukan ”( ”Kaput Joking” anyone?!! ) village on foot. 17,000 people were evacuated.
    A small but lethal stream of CO2 gas flows out of this or nearby fissures to this day.

    Click to access nealfest_evans_w.pdf

    1979 Now that was quite a year.

    In January the Shah and his Pahlavi Dynasty fled Iran.

    Then, pick your environmental scare story.

    The Dieng tragedy – the worlds first killer CO2 cloud – was in February 1979.

    Then March brought no less than the invisible environmental menace which was – The Three Mile Island accident.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Mile_Island_accident

    Nuclear scare-movie, The China Syndrome was released.

    gf

    April saw a volcanic eruption on St Vincent and the evacuation of 14,000 people.
    http://londonvolcano.com/2014/06/11/my-path-to-becoming-a-volcanologist-richie-robertson-and-the-1979-eruption-on-st-vincent/

    Then June brought the first great Gulf Oil Disaster
    http://www.wired.com/2011/06/0603itxtoc-oil-blowout-gulf-of-mexico/

    ”It was the largest oil spill in history, a record that stood until retreating Iraqi soldiers blew up Kuwait’s oil wells in 1991, and the largest in marine history until Deepwater Horizon in 2010.”

    fd

    By August even the Fastnet boatrace was joining in to affirm just how powerful nature can be. A freak storm blew up and affected many of the 303 yachts taking part in the world famous ocean race. 15 perished, we heard.

    http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/14/newsid_3886000/3886877.stm

    ”A Dutch warship and trawlers from France have also joined the rescue operation, which is the biggest ever launched in peace-time. A 20,000 mile (32,000 km) square area of sea is being searched”
    ‘the biggest rescue operation in peace-time’.
    null

    Then to November and neatly round to an incident which came up the very first time I spoke to ab.

    1979 Mississauga train derailment

    Oh yes, another invisible chemical menace threatened once more, this time the possibility of a deadly cloud of chlorine gas spreading through suburban Mississauga and more than 200,000 people were evacuated
    then the largest peacetime evacuation in North America until the New Orleans evacuation.
    The problem had started in the 33rd car of the train…

    fd

    1979 quite a year, then.

    I think that a certain environmental picture was being painted and anxieties were being nurtured in 1979.

    DalTampra

    #23160
    xileffilex
    Participant

    Back later..just for now, doesn’t that Mississauga train derailment look suspicously like that transparent recent hoax the simply transparent Canadian Lac Megantic “disaster” which I will get round to writing up when the flow of hoaxes slows [fat chance…]?

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