Origins of MK- Ultra

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    Interesting link that digs deep into the history of MK- Ultra.

    Here’s a taster:

    The following is excerpted from Mystic Chemist: The Life of Albert Hoffman and His Discovery of LSD by Dieter Hagenbach and Lucius Werthmüller, the authoritative biography of Albert Hofmann released through Synergetic Press.

    As individuals they may be anything. In their institutional role they are monsters because the institution is monstrous.
    Noam Chomsky

    Dividing the World

    The capitulation of the German army on May 7, 1945, marked the end of the Second World War in Europe, but behind the scenes, the Cold War had already begun…

    …Meanwhile, the news of Albert Hofmann’s discovery of a psychoactive substance had traveled around the world. Moreover, Werner Stoll’s publication in 1947 of his first trials on humans generated great interest among professionals internationally. The Viennese physician Otto Kauder discussed Stoll’s work in 1949 at a conference held at the Boston Psychopathic Hospital which was affiliated with Harvard University. Among those present was Army psychiatrist Max Rinkel, who then travelled to Basel, visited Sandoz Pharmaceuticals, and returned, bringing the first LSD to the USA. Sandoz was interested in seeing their drug tested internationally and in gathering research results; they gladly provided physicians and clinics around the world with Delysid® at no cost. It was not Rinkel but his more adventuresome colleague Robert W. Hyde who became the first American to have an LSD experience. That same year they began the first LSD trials in the U.S. at Harvard. One hundred volunteer subjects under the influence of LSD were observed for changes in behavior. By May 1950, Rinkel and Hyde were able to present their findings at a meeting of the American Psychiatric Association (APA). At the same time, Hyde published the first article about their LSD experiments which permitted investigating “temporary psychic disturbances” in a controlled setting. Shortly thereafter, the American intelligence service and the army noticed the report and imagined that in LSD they had found the long sought truth serum for counter espionage and for weakening resistance in enemy soldiers. It was rumored that the CIA underwrote additional LSD experiments of Dr. Rinkel and Mister Hyde and fed them ideas for experiments that met the agency’s own needs.
    On April 20, 1950, the CIA under Allen Dulles gave the green light for the intelligence service to evaluate the use of LSD in the secret operation Bluebird. During WWII, Dulles was chief of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) and stationed in Berne. From there he visited Sandoz in Basel to gain direct knowledge of the utility and range of effects to be gained from LSD. (Marks 1979) On April 13, 1953, he ordered Richard Helms, head of the Office for Scientific Intelligence, to begin the research program dubbed MK-Ultra. This highly secret program directed by military psychiatrist and chemist Sidney Gottlieb was launched in response to the brain washing employed by the Chinese and Soviets as well as the North Koreans with American prisoners of war during and after the Korean War. MK stood for Mind Control and was derived from the German “Meinungs-Kontrolle” or thought control; “Ultra” indicated that the experiments went to all possible extremes. Quite a few MK-Ultra experiments were modeled after those carried out on humans in German concentration camps; some proved to be deadly in the U.S. as well. Up until the end of the 1960s, they were carried out on thousands of unsuspecting experimental subjects—normal citizens, prisoners, the ill, handicapped and even children. Chemical and biological substances were used and, for the first time, LSD. These experiments were combined with torture methods like electroshock, sensory deprivation, and simulated drowning. Most of the subjects were not informed that drugs had been administered, and the experiments were done without medical and psychological supervision since few agents or superiors were trained professionals. (Koch 2004)…

    Whatever reality is, it's not that.

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