These examples are not the best but you get the idea. Yesterday, I asked it about the Greek manuscripts from antiquity that existed during the middle age before the Arabic translations.
Q: When did the concept of "prehistory" emerge ? and what was the widely accepted history of humanity in Europe at the time before that?
Q: Was the spherical Earth belief common among the Babylonians?A: The concept of "prehistory" emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, as European scholars began to recognize the existence of human societies that had existed prior to the development of written records. Prior to this time, the widely accepted history of humanity in Europe was based primarily on written records and the Bible, which placed the origin of human societies at around 4000 BCE.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, European scholars began to uncover evidence of ancient human societies that predated the development of writing, such as the megalithic monuments of Stonehenge in England and the dolmens of Brittany in France. These discoveries challenged the traditional view of human history, and led to the development of new fields of study such as archaeology and anthropology.
The concept of "prehistory" was formalized in the early 20th century, as scholars began to develop a more systematic approach to the study of ancient human societies that lacked written records. Today, prehistory is generally defined as the period of human history that extends from the emergence of the first human ancestors to the development of writing in various parts of the world, which occurred at different times in different places.
Q: Did they leave any written record stating that they knew the shape of the earth?A: Yes, the belief in a spherical Earth was common among the Babylonians, an ancient civilization that lived in Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq) from around 2000 BCE to 539 BCE.
The Babylonians were known for their astronomical observations and calculations, and they had a sophisticated understanding of the movements of the planets and stars. They believed that the Earth was a sphere, and they used this knowledge to accurately predict celestial events such as lunar and solar eclipses.
One example of Babylonian astronomy is the Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa, which dates back to around 1700 BCE. This tablet contains a record of observations of the planet Venus over a 21-year period, and it includes calculations of the planet's orbit and its appearances as a morning or evening star.
Overall, the Babylonians were one of the most advanced civilizations of the ancient world, and their knowledge of astronomy and mathematics had a significant influence on later cultures, including the Greeks and the Romans.
Q: When was the Venus Tablet of Ammisaduqa discovered?A: There is no known written record from the Babylonians stating explicitly that they believed the Earth to be a sphere. However, there are several indications in their surviving texts and records that suggest that they had knowledge of the Earth's shape.
For example, in the Venus Tablet of Ammisaduqa, a cuneiform tablet from the 17th century BCE, the Babylonians made detailed observations of the planet Venus over a period of 21 years, and used these observations to accurately predict the planet's future movements. This level of accuracy required a sophisticated understanding of the movements of celestial bodies, which could only have been achieved if the Babylonians believed in a spherical Earth.
In addition, the Babylonians were known for their astronomical observations and calculations, and their star maps and calendars show that they had a detailed understanding of the movements of the stars and planets. This knowledge may also suggest that they believed in a spherical Earth.
Overall, while there is no direct evidence of the Babylonians explicitly stating that they believed in a spherical Earth, their astronomical knowledge and achievements strongly suggest that they held this belief.
Q: Do you know by which methods the age of the tablet was derived?A: The Venus Tablet of Ammisaduqa was discovered in the 19th century by the British archaeologist Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, who found it among a collection of cuneiform tablets in the British Museum. The tablet itself dates back to the 17th century BCE and is believed to have been created during the reign of the Babylonian king Ammisaduqa.
Q: What did Henry Creswicke Rawlinson discover before the "Venus Tablet of Ammisaduqa"?A: The age of the Venus Tablet of Ammisaduqa was determined through a combination of historical and archaeological evidence, as well as analysis of the language and script used on the tablet itself.
The tablet was found among a collection of cuneiform tablets that were excavated from the ruins of the ancient city of Nineveh in modern-day Iraq. The ruins of Nineveh are known to have been destroyed by the Babylonians in the 6th century BCE, which provides a lower bound for the age of the tablet.
In addition, the language and script used on the tablet are consistent with those used during the reign of Ammisaduqa in the 17th century BCE, which provides an upper bound for the age of the tablet.
Overall, the age of the Venus Tablet of Ammisaduqa was determined through a combination of archaeological context and linguistic analysis, and is estimated to be around 3700 years old.
Q:Did anyone at the time criticize the discoveries of Henry Creswicke Rawlinson ?A: Henry Creswicke Rawlinson was an English scholar and soldier who made several significant discoveries in the field of Middle Eastern studies in the mid-19th century. Prior to his work on the Venus Tablet of Ammisaduqa, Rawlinson is perhaps best known for his decipherment of the Behistun Inscription.
The Behistun Inscription is a large rock relief located in present-day Iran, and it contains inscriptions in three different languages: Old Persian, Elamite, and Babylonian. Rawlinson was able to decipher the Old Persian portion of the inscription in the 1830s and 1840s, which provided a key to the translation of the other two languages.
Rawlinson's work on the Behistun Inscription was a major breakthrough in the study of ancient Near Eastern languages and history. It helped to establish the foundation for the study of the ancient Persian Empire, and it paved the way for further discoveries and advances in the field. The Venus Tablet of Ammisaduqa was one of Rawlinson's later discoveries, which he made in the 1870s, after his work on the Behistun Inscription.
Like most significant scientific discoveries, the work of Henry Creswicke Rawlinson was not without its critics. Rawlinson's decipherment of the Behistun Inscription, in particular, was met with skepticism by some of his contemporaries, who found it difficult to believe that an outsider could make such a breakthrough in the study of ancient languages.
In addition, Rawlinson's work on the Behistun Inscription was part of a larger scholarly debate about the origins of the ancient Persian Empire. Some scholars at the time argued that the empire was of Semitic origin, while others believed it to be of Indo-European origin. Rawlinson's decipherment of the Old Persian language helped to support the Indo-European theory, but it was not universally accepted by all scholars in the field.
Despite these criticisms, Rawlinson's work on the Behistun Inscription is now widely regarded as a major breakthrough in the study of ancient languages and history. His decipherment of the inscription helped to establish the foundation for the study of the ancient Persian Empire, and it paved the way for further discoveries and advances in the field.