- 1 Pre-Herzl
- 2 Herzl (1896)
- 3 1898-1930s
- 4 1930s-Eichmann
- 5 Adolf Eichmann
- 6 1960s-end of Pinoched (1989)
- 7 Menem-Kirchner (1989-2015)
- 8 Modern history
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Useful material
Kingdom of Araucanía & Patagonia (1860-62)
The Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia[H 1] (Spanish: Reino de la Araucanía y de la Patagonia; French: Royaume d'Araucanie et de Patagonie, sometimes referred to as New France) was an unrecognized state proclaimed on November 17, 1860 by a decree of Orélie-Antoine de Tounens, a French lawyer and adventurer,[H 2] who claimed that the regions of Araucanía and eastern Patagonia did not need to depend on any other states. He had the support of some Mapuche lonkos, who were engaged in a desperate armed struggle to retain their independence in the face of hostile military and economic encroachment by the governments of Chile and Argentina, who coveted the Mapuche lands for economical and political reasons.
Arrested on January 5, 1862 by the Chilean authorities, Antoine de Tounens was imprisoned and declared insane on September 2, 1862 by the court of Santiago and expelled to France on October 28, 1862. He later tried three times to return to Araucania to reclaim his "kingdom" without success.[H 3]
List of kings and pretender kings:
- 1882 : Achille Laviarde (1878–1902) also known as "Achille I"[H 4]
- 1902 : Antoine Hippolyte Cros (1902–1903) also known as "Antoine II"[H 5]
- 1903 : Laure Thérèse Cros (1903–1916) also known as "Laure Thérèse I"[H 6]
- 1916 : Jacques Antoine Bernard (1916–1952) also known as "Antoine III"[H 7]
- 1952 : Philippe Boiry (1952–2014) also known as "Prince Philippe"[H 8]
- 2014 : Jean-Michel Parasiliti di Para (2014-2017) also known as "Antoine IV"[H 9]
- 2018 : Frédéric Luz also known as "Frédéric I"[H 10]
Mauricio de Hirsch (1880s)
"Moritz (Zvi) von Hirsch, also known as Maurice de Hirsch (German: Moritz Freiherr von Hirsch auf Gereuth; French: Maurice, baron de Hirsch de Gereuth; 9 December 1831 – 21 April 1896), was a German Jewish financier and philanthropist who set up charitable foundations to promote Jewish education and improve the lot of oppressed European Jewry. He was the founder of the Jewish Colonization Association, which sponsored large-scale Jewish immigration to Argentina.
The association, which was prohibited from working for profit, possessed large agricultural colonies in Argentina, Canada and Palestine. In addition to its vast agricultural work, it had a gigantic and complex machinery for dealing with the whole problem of Jewish persecution, including emigration and distributing agencies, technical schools, co-operative factories, savings and loan banks, and model dwellings. It also assisted a large number of societies all over the world whose work was connected with the relief and rehabilitation of Jewish refugees.
Besides this great organization, Hirsch founded in 1881 a benevolent trust in the United States for the benefit of Jewish immigrants, which he endowed with £493,000. His minor charities were on a princely scale, and during his residence in London, he distributed over £100,000 among the local hospitals.
In 1900, his estate donated funds to the Pasteur Institute in Paris for the construction of their chimie biologique (biochemistry) building."[H 11]
Empire of Julio Popper (1890s)
Julio Popper[H 12]
"Popper was born in 1857 to a Jewish family in Bucharest, son of professor Neftali Popper, a prosperous antiques merchant, and his wife Peppi [Peppi Popper :-D ]. He studied in Paris and """completed gaining credentials""" as an engineer.[as in, not obtaining a degree?]
After working in Europe for several years, he took a job working on the infrastructure for the telegraph in Chile. He arrived in Argentina in 1885, where he became attracted by the possibility of gold mining in Tierra del Fuego.
On 7 September 1886 he led an 18-man expedition that included a chief engineer, a mineralogist, a journalist and a photographer. They found gold dust on the beach of El Páramo, in San Sebastián Bay. The expedition was rigorously and strictly enforced according to military standards with heavily armed men, with Popper in direct command of everything. He succeeded in unearthing great amounts of gold and his Compania de Lavaderos de Oro del Sud realized enormous capital gains at the Argentine stock exchange. A mint built to manage the gold has been adapted as the Museum at the End of the Earth, officially known as the Museo Territorial.
In Patagonia, Popper gained dominance with a private army. He issued his own coins and stamps to symbolize his power. When the Argentine peso lost its value in the market crash of 1890, his gold coins were regarded as currency.
Popper vigorously fought against his enemies; he punished gold diggers and thieves according to arbitrary law. The most controversial aspect of his life was his participation in the Selk'nam genocide against the native communities on Tierra del Fuego. Sheep farmers and gold miners fought against them; the former because the Selk'nam would hunt sheep in their former territories and the latter because of conflicts over mining areas. Together with other bounty hunters, who were paid to kill the Selk'nam, Popper too sent his armed forces to manhunt them.
In 1886, with a permit from the Argentine Government, Popper formed an exploring company of eighteen men to mine for gold near San Sebastián, Tierra del Fuego. During the expedition, Popper and his men were attacked by eighty Ona armed with bows. Popper and his men responded by firing their Winchester rifles, killing but two of the Ona. After the fight, Popper "posed his men in the attitude of troops repelling a charge, took a position himself astride one of the dead Indians, and then had the outfit photographed for subsequent use."
Popper also prepared an expedition to enforce the Argentine claim for parts of Antarctica.
After his """sudden death""" (DCP?) in Buenos Aires at the age of 35, his empire collapsed. The cause of his death has not been """established""". Contemporary American journalist John R. Spears says that he was poisoned by "men whom he had offended in the south."[H 13]
"The Selk'nam genocide was the genocide of the Selk'nam people, one of three indigenous tribes populating the Tierra del Fuego in South America, from the second half of the 19th to the early 20th century. Spanning a period of between ten and fifteen years the Selk'nam, which had an estimated population of 3,000 people, saw their numbers reduced to 500.
The Selk'nam had lived for thousands of years a semi-nomadic life in Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego (literally "big island of land of fire", its name being based on early Spanish explorers' observations of smoke from Selk'nam bonfires.) They lived in the northeast, with the Haush people to their east on the Mitre Peninsula, and the Yaghan people to the west and south, in the central part of the main island and throughout the southern islands of the archipelago.
About 4,000 Selk'nam were alive in the mid-nineteenth century; by 1930 this had been reduced to about 100. Cattle breeders, farmers and gold-prospectors from Argentina, Chile, the UK and the US had entered the region, and were joined by adventurers and other fortune seekers. The natives were plied with alcohol, deported and exterminated, with bounties paid to the most ruthless hunters. The large ranchers tried to run off the Selk'nam, then began a campaign of extermination against them, with the compliance of the Argentine and Chilean governments. Large companies paid sheep farmers or militia a bounty for each Selk'nam dead, which was confirmed on presentation of a pair of hands or ears, or later a complete skull. They were given more for the death of a woman than a man. In addition, missionaries disrupted their livelihood through forcible relocation and brought with them deadly epidemics.
Repression against the Selk'nam persisted into the early twentieth century. Chile moved some Selk'nam to Dawson Island, confining them in an internment or concentration camp. Argentina finally allowed Salesian missionaries to aid the Selk'nam and attempt to assimilate them, but their culture and people were largely destroyed."[I 1]
"Por genocidio selknam (genocidio selk'nam o genocidio ona) se conoce a los hechos definidos como genocidio ocurridos entre la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y las primeras décadas del siglo XX en contra de los selknam u onas, pueblo amerindio de la isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. La última representante pura de este pueblo, Ángela Loij, falleció en 1974. Actualmente solo existen algunos descendientes mestizos de esta etnia.1
Hacia fines del siglo XIX la isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego concitó el interés de grandes compañías ganaderas. La introducción de las estancias ovejeras creó fuertes conflictos entre los nativos y los colonos británicos, argentinos y chilenos, conflicto que adquirió ribetes de guerra de exterminio. Las grandes compañías ovejeras llegaron a pagar una libra esterlina por cada selknam muerto, lo que era confirmado presentando manos u orejas de las víctimas.
Las tribus del norte fueron las primeras afectadas, iniciándose una oleada migratoria al extremo sur de la isla para escapar de las masacres. En busca de alternativas a la matanza, en 1890 el Gobierno chileno cedió la isla Dawson, en el estrecho de Magallanes, a sacerdotes salesianos que establecieron allí una misión dotada de amplios recursos económicos. Los selknam que sobrevivieron al genocidio fueron virtualmente deportados a la isla, la que en un plazo de veinte años cerró dejando un cementerio poblado de cruces.
Sobre el número aproximado de población selknam y sus tres parcialidades étnicas, existen dificultades serias para estimar cifras razonables, debido a la falta de estudios demográficos previos al proceso colonizador. Sin embargo, para tener una visión aproximada, Martin Gusinde estimó la población antes del proceso colonizador entre 3500 a 4000 personas. En 1887, El Boletín Salesiano estimaba unos 2000 indígenas y más tarde el padre Borgatello contaría entre 2000 y 3000 almas. En la memoria del gobernador de Magallanes Manuel Señoret (1892-1897), se precisaba que:
Cuando la Tierra del Fuego era apenas conocida se creía que el número de indios onas era muy reducido. Ahora que se ha fundado numerosas estancias y que es cruzada día a día por lo empleados de esas estancias, se ha visto que su número es mucho mayor. Se estima, siendo un cálculo muy exacto y aproximado, que no hay menos de cuatro mil indígenas de la raza ona en la grande isla de Tierra del Fuego. Manuel Señoret, Gobernador de Magallanes entre 1892 y 1897.
Un estudio demográfico más fiable es el realizado por Esteban Lucas Bridges en 1899, donde registró la población selknam de la siguiente manera
Al sur de río Grande habitaban 250 onas repartidos en diversos puntos de la isla; en el norte, no integrados en la misión de la Candelaria, vivían unos 20 indios más. En ese mismo año hay bajo control de las misiones 163 indios en la Candelaria (de los diarios de la misión) y un máximo de 350 en Dawson. Es decir que al finalizar el siglo XIX quedaban unos 783 onas en Tierra del Fuego. Esteban Lucas Bridges (en 1899)
Estas cifras demuestran que la población aparentemente pudo ser bastante cercana a las estimaciones de Martín Gusinde (de 3500 a 4000 en toda la isla). Existe poca claridad de la cantidad exacta de cuántos de éstos indígenas murieron en los 18 años antes del inicio de la colonización, por los asesinatos, enfermedades y deportaciones. Por ejemplo en el episodio de la expedición de Ramón Lista, que en un solo enfrentamiento mató a lo menos 28 personas."[I 2]
Hovevei Zion (1881)
"Hovevei Zion (Hebrew: חובבי ציון, lit. [Those who are] Lovers of Zion), also known as Hibbat Zion (Hebrew: חיבת ציון), refers to a variety of organizations which began in 1881 in response to the Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire and were officially constituted as a group at a conference led by Leon Pinsker in 1884.
In 1854, Judah Touro bequeathed money to fund Jewish residential settlement in Palestine. Sir Moses Montefiore was appointed executor of his will, and used the funds for a variety of projects, including building the first Jewish residential settlement and almshouse outside of the old walled city of Jerusalem in 1860, which is known today as Mishkenot Sha'ananim. Laurence Oliphant failed in a like attempt to bring to Palestine the Jewish proletariat of Poland, Lithuania, Romania, and the Turkish Empire (1879 and 1882).
In the Russian Empire, waves of pogroms of 1881-1884 (some allegedly state-sponsored), as well as the anti-Semitic May Laws of 1882 introduced by Tsar Alexander III of Russia, deeply affected Jewish communities. More than 2 million Jews fled Russia between 1880 and 1920. The vast majority of them emigrated to the United States, but some decided to form an aliyah.
In 1882, a group of Hovevei Zion enthusiasts which included noted philanthropist Isaac Leib Goldberg founded Rishon LeZion, the first Zionist settlement in the Land of Israel, despite obstacles posed by the Turkish government, which hindered the purchase of land. Later, Bilu pioneers strengthened the settlement and enlarged it. For many years, textbooks gave Bilu the credit for the establishment of Rishon, but in the last decades — after a campaign by the veterans of Rishon and their descendants — Hovevei Zion were given the credit as the founders of the city.
The Hovevei Zion tract Aruchas bas-ami was authored by Isaac Rülf in 1883, and in 1884, 34 delegates met in Kattowitz, Germany (today Katowice, Poland). Rabbi Samuel Mohilever was elected the president and Leon Pinsker the chairman of the organization they named Hovevei Zion. The group tried to secure financial help from Baron Edmond James de Rothschild and other philanthropists to aid Jewish settlements and to organize educational courses. In June 1887, another conference was held in Druskininkai.
The organizations are now considered the forerunners and foundation-builders of modern Zionism. Many of the first groups were established in Eastern European countries in the early 1880s with the aim to promote Jewish immigration to Palestine, and advance Jewish settlement there, particularly agricultural. Most of them stayed away from politics.
"The Society for the Support of Jewish Farmers and Artisans in Syria and Eretz Israel," which came to be known as The Odessa Committee."[N 1]
- Odessa was the most jewish city in the Russian Empire..
- ODESSA is the name used for the Nazi flight to South America...
"Leon Pinsker (Yiddish: לעאָן פינסקער, Yehudah Leib Pinsker; Russian: Лев (Леон) Семёнович or Йехуда Лейб Пинскер, Lev Semyonovich Pinsker; 1821–1891) was a physician, a Zionist pioneer and activist, and the founder and leader of the Hovevei Zion, also known as Hibbat Zion (Hebrew: חיבת ציון, Lovers of Zion) movement.
His visit to Western Europe led to his famous pamphlet Auto-Emancipation, subtitled Mahnruf an seine Stammgenossen, von einem russischen Juden (Warning to His Fellow People, from a Russian Jew), which he published anonymously in German on 1 January 1882, and in which he urged the Jewish people to strive for independence and national consciousness. The book raised strong responses, both for and against.
His analysis of the roots of this ancient hatred led him to call for the establishment of a Jewish National Homeland, either in Palestine or elsewhere. Eventually Pinsker came to agree with Moses Lilienblum that hatred of Jews was rooted in the fact that they were foreigners everywhere except their original homeland, the Land of Israel. He became one of the founders and a chairman of the Hovevei Zion movement, with the backing of Baron Edmond James de Rothschild."[N 2]
"Leon Pinsker, autor de "Autoemancipación" (1882), considerado un texto fundacional del sionismo y que sirvió de inspiración a Herzl para su "Estado judío", fue un defensor de la opción argentina, al igual que Maurice de Hirsch, uno de los impulsores de las colonias judías en América."[N 3]
"Palästina oder Argentinien?
Ist Palästina oder Argentinien vorzuziehen? Die Society wird nehmen, was man ihr gibt und wofür sich die öffentliche Meinung des Judenvolkes erklärt. Die Society wird beides feststellen.
Argentinien ist eines der natürlich reichsten Länder der Erde, von riesigem Flächeninhalt, mit schwacher Bevölkerung und gemässigtem Klima. Die argentinische Republik hätte das grösste Interesse daran, uns ein Stück Territorium abzutreten. Die jetzige Judeninfiltration hat freilich dort Verstimmung erzeugt; man müsste Argentinien über die wesentliche Verschiedenheit der neuen Judenwanderung aufklären.
Palästina ist unsere unvergessliche historische Heimat. Dieser Name allein wäre ein gewaltig ergreifender Sammelruf für unser Volk. Wenn Seine Majestät der Sultan uns Palästina gäbe, könnten wir uns dafür anheischig machen, die Finanzen der Türkei gänzlich zu regeln. Für Europa würden wir dort ein Stück des Walles gegen Asien bilden, wir würden den Vorpostendienst der Cultur gegen die Barbarei besorgen. Wir würden als neutraler Staat im Zusammenhange bleiben mit ganz Europa, das unsere Existenz garantiren müsste. Für die heiligen Stätten der Christenheit liesse sich eine völkerrechtliche Form der Exterritorialisirung finden.
Wir würden die Ehrenwache um die heiligen Stätten bilden, und mit unserer Existenz für die Erfüllung dieser Pflicht haften. Diese Ehrenwacht wäre das grosse Symbol für die Lösung der Judenfrage nach achtzehn für uns qualvollen Jahrhunderten."[H 14]
First Zionist Congress (August 1897)
"The First Zionist Congress is credited for the following achievements:
- the formulation of the Zionist platform, (the Basel program)
- the foundation of the Zionist Organization
- the adoption of Hatikvah as its anthem
- the absorption of most of the previous Hovevei Zion societies
- the suggestion for the establishment of a people's bank
- the election of Herzl as President of the Zionist Organization and Simcha Maximilian Südfeld "Max Nordau",[N 4] one of three Vice-Presidents
Theodor Herzl wrote in his diary (September 3, 1897):"Were I to sum up the Basel Congress in a word - which I shall guard against pronouncing publicly - it would be this: At Basel I founded the Jewish State. If I said this out loud today l would be greeted by universal laughter. In five years perhaps, and certainly in fifty years, everyone will perceive it.""[N 5]
"At the First Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland, in August 1897, the idea of a central fund to support the development of a Jewish home in Palestine was raised by Max Bodenheimer, a lawyer from Cologne, Germany. In May 1898, an initial committee, consisting of Bodenheimer, David Wolffsohn of Lithuania and Dr. Rudolph Schauer of Germany, was organized to lay the foundation for the new enterprise. The committee established that the new bank’s purpose would be the economic development and strengthening of Jewish colonies in Palestine, the purchase of land for new settlements on a legally recognized basis, the development of trade and industry in the colonies, the loaning of money for the purposes of colonization, and the establishment of savings-banks in the colonies."[N 6]
- They start with "settlements", but then shamelessly turns them into "colonies"
- These factors are all present on a larger scale than Israel in Patagonia...
Simcha Maximilian Südfeld
"Nordau's conversion to Zionism was eventually triggered by the Dreyfus Affair. Many Jews, amongst them Theodor Herzl, saw in the Dreyfus Affair evidence of the universality of antisemitism.
[Südfeld] went on to play a major role in the World Zionist Organisation; indeed Nordau's relative fame certainly helped bring attention to the Zionist movement. He can be credited with giving the organisation a democratic character.
When World War I broke out he, a native of Hungary, was accused of German sympathies. He denied the charge and afterward went to reside in Madrid. An attempt to assassinate him was made in the latter part of 1903."[N 4]
- Degeneration (1895)
"Degeneration (Entartung, 1892), is a book by """Max Nordau""" in which he attacks what he believed to be degenerate art and comments on the effects of a range of social phenomena of the period, such as rapid urbanization and its perceived effects on the human body.
Europe was then undergoing unprecedented technological progress and social upheaval. The rapid industrialisation and the accompanying urbanisation were breaking down many of the traditional structures of society.
[Simcha Maximilian Südfeld]'s views were in many ways more like those of an 18th-century thinker, a belief in Reason, Progress and more traditional, classical rules governing art and literature. The irrationalism and amorality of philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche and the flagrant anti-Semitism of Richard Wagner were seen as proof to Nordau that society was in danger of returning to an era before the Enlightenment."[H 15]
In his own -translated- words:[H 16]
"In particular, Lombroso* has conspicuously broadened our knowledge of stigmata, but he apportions them merely to his ' born criminals '
—a limitation which from the very scientific standpoint of Lombroso himself cannot be justified, his 'born criminals' being nothing but a subdivision of degenerates.
Feref expresses this very emphatically when he says, ' Vice, crime and madness are only distinguished from each other by social prejudices.
There might be a sure means of proving that the application of the term ' degenerates ' to the originators of all the fin-de-siecle movements in art and literature is not arbitrary, that it is no baseless conceit, but a fact ; and that would be a careful physical examination of the persons concerned, and an inquiry into their pedigree. In almost all cases, relatives would be met with who were undoubtedly degenerate, and one or more stigmata discovered which would indisputably establish the diagnosis of ' Degeneration.' Of course, from human consideration, the result of such an inquiry could often not be made public; and he alone would be convinced who should be able to undertake it himself.
- Lombroso:[H 17]
"Lombroso, Lumbroso, Lumbrozo is a surname, derived from a Sephardi family, members of which lived in Tunis, Marseilles, and Italy. The surname may refer to:
- Isaac Lumbroso (1680-1752), rabbi and talmudiste ;
- Cesare Lombroso (1835–1909): An Italian criminologist. <- "Nordau"'s Lombroso
- Jacob Lumbrozo, Portuguese traveller, first Jew to permanently settle in the New World"
- "Max Nordau"
- In 1926 his remains were moved to Tel Aviv's Trumpeldor Cemetery. A major Tel Aviv street was named "Nordau Boulevard".
Second Zionist Congress (August 1898)
"The proposal for the trust was approved at the Second Zionist Congress in Basel in August 1898, with Wolffsohn announcing that a significant amount of shares had already been subscribed. Despite this initial success, Herzl and the other leaders faced significant opposition to the idea of the bank. Despite initial setbacks, investment in the bank picked up sufficiently for its subsidiary, the Anglo-Palestine Bank, to be formed in 1902 to carry out the bank's objectives in Palestine."[N 6]
Selk'nam genocide continued into the early 20th century.
Swedish Expedition (1907-09)
- Led by Carl Skottsberg, photos of expedition
"[Skottsberg] led the Swedish Magellanic Expedition to Patagonia, 1907 to 1909. Carl Skottsberg is believed to have been the last to have seen the Santalum fernandezianum tree alive when he visited the Juan Fernández Islands in 1908."[H 18]
"A keen wind whistles through the Channels, tears the stunted trees, and now and then flings a grey shower as a contribution to the yellowish bogs. On the tops of the mountains the winter snow shines against a leaden sky. Then Emilia presses her flat nose still flatter against the panes in the laboratory and says something which signifies ^canoe.
By means of the glasses we perceive a black spot far ahead— our first encounter with the Indians is at hand. Darwin once said that a naked savage in his own land is a sight never to be forgotten. It was not the first we had seen, but the impression was never so strong. The canoe we now met was typical from every point of view. Half-naked, wild-looking figures are pulling out of time; in the stern an old woman steers.
Everywhere amongst the queer luggage —sticks and poles of various shapes, old sealskins, piles of shells, and pieces of blubber—barking dogs peep forth, and in the smoke from the fire, always nursed..."[H 19]
Balfour Declaration (1917)
Main: Balfour Declaration
Patagonia Rebelde (1920-22)
"Patagonia Rebelde (or Patagonia Trágica) ("Rebel Patagonia" or "Tragic Patagonia" in English) was the name given to the violent suppression of a rural worker's strike in the Argentine province of Santa Cruz in Patagonia between 1920 and 1922.
The uprising was put down by colonel Héctor Benigno Varela's 10th Cavalry Regiment of the Argentine Army under the orders of President Hipólito Yrigoyen.
Approximately 1,500 rural workers were shot and killed by the Argentine Army in the course of the operations, many of them executed by firing squads after surrendering.
Most of the executed were Spanish and Chilean workers who had sought refuge in Argentina's Patagonia after their strike in the city of Puerto Natales in southern Chile on 27 July 1920 was crushed by the Chilean authorities, at the cost of four carabineers killed.
At least two Argentine soldiers (corporal Domingo Montenegro and private Fernando Pablo Fischer), three local policemen (sergeant Tomás Rosa and constables Ernesto Bozán and Juan Campos) and a number of ranch owners and their relatives also died during the strife."[H 20]
|09/06, 1930||Coup d'etat of José Félix Uriburu against Hipólito Yrigoyen, sparked the Infamous Decade||.|
|06/04, 1943||Coup d'etat, finishing the Infamous Decade||Military dictatorship takes over.|
|10/12, 1944||Ex-president Ramón Castillo (English wiki is PATHETIC) dies, age 70||on Election Day, which is America Day in Argentina [??]|
|01/26, 1944||Argentina breaks bonds with Axis||Argentina finally fell for the pressure by the Allied Powers, breaking relations with the Axis Powers on January 26, 1944 under Edelmiro Julián Farrell (descendant of the Irish Ó Fearghail clan.|
|03/27, 1945||Argentina declares War on Axis||Argentina finally fell for the pressure by the Allied Powers, declaring war on Germany and Japan on March 27, 1945 [???]. Protégé of Farell, wheelbarrowing his career was Juan Domingo Perón.|
|04/09, 1948||Assassination of Jorge Eliécer Gaitán, El Bogotazo||Sparking the War For Drugs in Colombia, military involvement from US and Israel especially, influence by Klaus Barbie, enormous change in society.|
Sponsored jewish emigration from Europe to Argentina.[X 1]
José Ber Gelbard (14 April 1917 – 4 October 1977), was a Polish-born Argentine activist and politician, and a member of the Argentine Communist Party. He also helped organize the Confederación General Económica (CGE), made up of small and medium-sized business. Beginning about 1954, he was appointed as an economic advisor to Juan Perón and repeatedly was called back to serve as Minister of Finance to successive governments until the military coup of March 1976. He fled with his family shortly before the coup, gaining political asylum in the United States and settling in Washington D.C. Born Joseph Gelbard into a Jewish family in Radomsko, Poland, in 1917, his family emigrated in 1930 to Argentina. They settled in Tucumán, 800 mi (1,287 km) north of Buenos Aires. Other family were already there, as well as immigrant communities of Sephardic and European Jews, and Arabs from the Middle East.[P 1]
DAIA is the Argentinian version of the ADL, an organization founded in 1935 with as current president Jorge Knoblovits.[M 1]
"La Delegación de Asociaciones Israelitas Argentinas o DAIA es una ONG a la que están adheridas 140 instituciones judías de Argentina, tiene la misión de luchar contra toda expresión de antisemitismo, de discriminación, racismo y xenofobia, preservar los derechos humanos, promover el diálogo interreligioso y la convivencia armónica entre todos los ciudadanos, en un marco de respeto a las diferencias, así como denunciar el terrorismo internacional, velando por la seguridad de las instituciones e integrantes de la comunidad judía argentina. La DAIA se desempeñó activamente en el esclarecimiento del atentado a la AMIA el 18 de julio de 1994, realizando reuniones representando a los judíos argentinos en el marco del diálogo interreligioso, y combatiendo el antisemitismo en la Argentina, como cuando durante la dictadura argentina de 1976-1983 el gobierno militar había excluido a los judíos de cualquier participación en cargos públicos ya sea como funcionarios o puestos de carrera en la diplomacia y tenían prohibido el ingreso a las fuerzas armadas."[M 2]
Joseph Otmar Hefter (1938)
Named Chile as potential to be formed jewish state.[X 1]
"Joseph Otmar Hefter was an artist, military person, and thinker, who in 1938 in New York wrote the pamphlet "Room for the Jew!" The pamphlet contains a detailed plan for resolving the Jewish question, described as a "New Judea" (Nai Juda). Hefter describes the new state's laws, flag, and language, makes practical suggestion for its location (some suggested areas are Australia, Canada, Argentina, Brazil and Chile), writes its hymn, designs pamphlets and posters for it, and establishes a pioneering force for establishing it.--Israeli Center for Digital Art website."[N 7]
Argentina in WWII
- Argentines in World War II
"During World War II, 4,000 Argentines served with all three British armed services, even though Argentina was officially a neutral country during the war. Over 600 Argentine volunteers served with both the Royal Air Force and the Royal Canadian Air Force, mostly in No. 164 (Argentine) squadron, whose shield bore the sun from the Flag of Argentina and the motto, "Determined We Fly (Firmes Volamos)".
Maureen Dunlop, born in Quilmes, left her Australian/English parents to join the Air Transport Auxiliary (ATA). She recorded over 800hrs service, ferrying Spitfires, Mosquitos P-51 Mustangs, Typhoons, and bomber types including the Wellington and Lancaster to the frontline RAF stations. After being photographed exiting her Fairey Barracuda, she featured on the cover of Picture Post on September 16, 1942 and became a wartime pin-up. Dunlop returned to Argentina after the war, and continued work as a commercial pilot who also flew for and trained pilots of the Argentine Air Force. She later raised pure-blood Arab horses with her husband on their stud farm, "Milla Lauquen Stud".
Nearly 500 Argentines served in the Royal Navy around the world, from the North Atlantic to the South Pacific. Many were part of the special forces, such as John Godwin.
Many members of the Anglo-Argentine community also volunteered in non-combat roles, or worked to raise money and supplies for British troops. In April 2005, a special remembrance service was held at the RAF church of St Clement Danes in London.
On May 9, 2015, the remains of the Argentine volunteer Group Captain Kenneth Langley Charney DFC & Bar, were repatriated and buried in the British Cemetery in Buenos Aires. Charney was born in Quilmes, Argentina, in 1920, and died in Andorra in 1982."
- Argentina's diplocraziness
"The liberation of Paris in August 1944, which would lead to the complete liberation of France, gave new hopes to the pro-allies factions in Argentina, who saw it as an omen of the possible fall of the Argentine government, and calls for new elections. The demonstrations in support of Paris soon turned into demonstrations against the government, leading to incidents with the police.
It was rumored that some Argentine politicians in Uruguay would create a government in exile, but the project never worked. Franklin D. Roosevelt supported Hull's claims about Argentina, saying similar things against the country. He also cited Churchill when he stated that history would judge all nations for their role in the war, both belligerents and neutrals.
By early 1945, World War II was nearing its end. The Soviets had captured Warsaw, and they were closing on the German border. Berlin itself was under attack; allied victory was inevitable. Perón, the strong man of the Argentine government, foresaw that the Allies would dominate international politics for decades, and although Argentina had successfully resisted the pressure to force her to join the war, remaining neutral until the war's end would force the country into isolationism at best or, worse, face military attack. Negotiations were eased by the departure of Hull as Secretary of State, replaced by Edward Stettinius, Jr.. The demands to Argentina were: the calling of elections, declaration of war to the Axis powers, eradication of any Nazi presence in the country, and complete cooperation with international organizations. Perón agreed: German organizations were curtailed, pro-nazi manifestations were banned, and German goods were seized [stolen, you mean?]. The Argentine merchant navy was instructed to ignore the German blockade.
Those measures eased relations with the United States. When the Allies advanced into Frankfurt, Argentina finally formalized the negotiations. On March 27, with the decree 6945, Argentina declared war on Japan, and on Germany as an ally of Japan. FORJA distanced itself from the government because of this, but Arturo Jauretche would understand the reasons year later. Jauretche reasoned that the United States opposed Argentina because of its perceived nazism by refusing to declare war, while neutrality was based instead in the Argentine interests; interests that were no longer at stake with a declaration of war at a point when the country would not actually join the conflict. Jauretche admitted that Perón's pragmatism was better for the country than his own idealistic perspective of keeping a neutral stance to the end of the war.
'A few days later, on April 10, the United Kingdom, France, the United States and the other Latin American countries restored diplomatic relations with Argentina. Still, the diplomatic hostility against Argentina from the United States resurfaced after the unexpected death of Franklin D. Roosevelt , who was succeeded by Harry S. Truman. The ambassador Spruille Braden would organize opposition to the government of Farrell and Perón.
The final Nazi defeat in the European Theatre of World War II took place a month later, greeted with demonstrations of joy in Buenos Aires. Similar demonstrations took place in August, after the surrender of Japan, bringing World War II to its final end. Farrell lifted the state of emergency, declared by Castillo after the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor.
"Maureen Adele Chase Dunlop de Popp (26 October 1920 – 29 May 2012), née Dunlop, was an Anglo-Argentine pilot who flew for the British Air Transport Auxiliary (ATA) during World War II, and became notable as a pin-up on the cover of the Picture Post magazine.
Her parents were Australian farm manager Eric Chase Dunlop, who had volunteered for the Royal Field Artillery during World War I and was now employed by a British company to manage 250,000 hectares (620,000 acres) of sheep farms in Patagonia, and his English wife Jessimin May Williams. The couple also had an elder daughter Joan, and a younger son Eric.
Educated mainly by her governess Dunlop also attended St. Hilda's College in Hurlingham, Buenos Aires Province. Surrounded by animals, she became an expert horse rider.
The three children regularly visited England. During a holiday there in 1936, Dunlop took flying lessons. On return to Argentina, she backdated her birth certificate to allow her to continue flight training, joining the Aeroclub Argentino.
Dunlop became a cover girl when pictured pushing her hair out of her face after she left the cockpit of a Fairey Barracuda aircraft. The shot featured on the front page of Picture Post magazine in 1944, proving women could be fearless as well as glamorous, and integral to the war effort.
At the end of hostilities, Dunlop qualified as a flying instructor at RAF Luton, before returning to Argentina. There she instructed pilots and flew for the Argentine Air Force, and also worked as a commercial pilot. Dunlop later held a partnership in an air taxi company, continuing to fly actively until 1969.
In 1955 she married retired Romanian diplomat Serban (Şerban) Victor Popp after meeting him at a British Embassy function in Buenos Aires. The couple had a son and two daughters, raised on their stud farm Milla Lauquen Stud. In 1973, the family moved to Norfolk to breed pure-blood Arab horses. Her husband died in 2000."[H 21]
Election of Juan Domingo Perón (1946)
Nazi escape routes organized by among others the Catholic Church, ending up in... Patagonia and other regions of the Southern Cone of South America.
Foundation of Israel (1948)
- Perón 1948 - Argentina was the first country to recognize Israel[X 1]
Death [?] of Evita Perón (1952)
See Eva Perón
End of Peronism (1955)
The capture of Adolf Eichmann and especially the wide media attention of this event in the whole world, but especially the West (United States) was ground-breaking in cementing the Holocaust Story, was one of the major psyops of the 20th century.
The fact this happened in Nazionist counry #1 Argentina and in the early 1960s after the regime of Juan Perón was no surprise.
Capture (May 1960)
"The team captured Eichmann on 11 May 1960 near his home on Garibaldi Street in San Fernando, Buenos Aires, an industrial community 20 kilometres (12 mi) north of the centre of Buenos Aires. The agents had arrived in April and observed his routine for many days, noting that he arrived home from work by bus at about the same time every evening. They planned to seize him when he was walking beside an open field from the bus stop to his house. The plan was almost abandoned on the designated day when Eichmann was not on the bus that he usually took home, but he got off another bus about half an hour later. Mossad agent Peter Malkin engaged him, asking him in Spanish if he had a moment. Eichmann was frightened and attempted to leave, but two more Mossad men came to Malkin's aid. The three wrestled Eichmann to the ground and, after a struggle, moved him to a car where they hid him on the floor under a blanket.
Eichmann was taken to one of several Mossad safe houses that had been set up by the team. He was held there for 9 days, during which time his identity was double-checked and confirmed. During these days, Harel tried to locate Josef Mengele, the notorious Nazi doctor from Auschwitz, as the Mossad had information that he was also living in Buenos Aires. He was hoping to bring Mengele back to Israel on the same flight. However, Mengele had already left his last known residence in the city, and Harel was unable to get any leads on where he had gone, so the plans for his capture had to be abandoned. Eitan told Haaretz in 2008 that they intentionally made the decision not to pursue Mengele, reasoning that to do so might jeopardise the Eichmann operation.
Near midnight on 20 May, Eichmann was sedated by an Israeli doctor on the Mossad team and dressed as a flight attendant. He was smuggled out of Argentina aboard the same El Al Bristol Britannia aircraft that had carried Israel's delegation a few days earlier to the official 150th anniversary celebration of Argentina's independence from Spain. There was a tense delay at the airport while the flight plan was approved, then the plane took off for Israel, stopping in Dakar, Senegal to refuel. They arrived in Israel on 22 May, and Ben-Gurion announced Eichmann's capture to the Knesset the following afternoon. In Argentina, the news of the abduction was met with a violent wave of """antisemitism""" carried out by """far-right elements""", including the Tacuara Nationalist Movement.[N 8]
- View from Naval Intelligence (2013 thesis Dawson)
"The Israeli mission to capture infamous Nazi War criminal Adolf Eichmann in May 1960 is an example of a clandestine action in a non-permissive political environment in pro-fascist Argentina. Israeli Prime Minister Ben-Gurion assessed that a request for Argentina to arrest and then extradite Eichmann to Israel had a high-potential of resulting in Eichmann being warned by Nazi sympathizers in the
The value of justice for Eichmann’s crimes parallels the value of American """justice""" against Usama Bin Laden for the """terror attacks of September 2001""".
Although Israeli-Argentine political relations were threatened as a result of the Eichmann capture, the mission represented a moral imperative to Israeli leaders. The domestic support for the operation well outweighed the international political risks.
In the Eichmann scenario, the endstate desired was one were the emotional wounds of the Holocaust that affected an entire nation could heal through achieving the goal of a public justice.
The strategy, although it failed to adequately address effective mitigation of the post-operations international political crisis, was well conceived with regard to the tactical mission and domestic politics."[M 3]
1960s-end of Pinoched (1989)
Colonia Dignidad (1960s+)
Main article: Colonia Dignidad
Colonia Dignidad was a teenager camp turned penal colony and abuse camp for political prisoners under Pinchochet, see below.
Walter Beveraggi Allende (1971)
Conspiracy to part Patagonia for jewish state.[H 22]
Coup d'etat Pinochet (1973)
- Overthrow of the president Salvador Allende in favor of military dictator Augusto Pinochet on Election Day in Chile, 09/11
- 9/11, 1973
- Henry Kissinger
Falkland War (1982)
- War between Argentina and the UK over the Islas Malvinas/"Falkland Islands"
End of Pinochet (1989)
Carlos Menem (1989-99)
- President of Argentina from 1989 to 1999[M 4]
- Syrian in origin
- now governor of La Rioja Province (89,680 km2)
On March 17, 1992 and July 18, 1994, two major psyops were staged in Buenos Aires city; the attack on the Israeli Embassy and AMIA building (Argentinian ADL).[X 1] Both under the presidency of Carlos Menem:
Israeli Embassy (1992)
AMIA building (1994)
Stock market crisis (2002)
- triggered to get access to cheap lands
- Role of Elsztain in this?
Néstor Kirchner (2003-07)
"Néstor Carlos Kirchner Jr. (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈnestoɾ ˈkaɾlos ˈkiɾʃneɾ]; 25 February 1950 – 27 October 2010) was an Argentine politician who served as President of Argentina from 2003 to 2007 and as Governor of Santa Cruz from 1991 to 2003. Ideologically a Peronist and social democrat, he served as President of the Justicialist Party from 2008 to 2010, with his political approach being characterised as Kirchnerism.
Born in Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Kirchner studied law at the National University of La Plata. He met and married Cristina Fernández at this time, returned with her to Río Gallegos at graduation, and opened a law firm. Commentators have criticized him for a lack of legal activism during the Dirty War, an issue he would involve himself in as president.
Kirchner ran for mayor of Río Gallegos in 1987 and for governor of Santa Cruz in 1991. He was reelected governor in 1995 and 1999 due to an amendment of the provincial constitution. Kirchner sided with Buenos Aires provincial governor Eduardo Duhalde against President Carlos Menem. Although Duhalde lost the 1999 presidential election, he was appointed president by the Congress when previous presidents Fernando de la Rúa and Adolfo Rodríguez Saá resigned during the December 2001 riots.
Duhalde suggested that Kirchner run for president in 2003 in a bid to prevent Menem's return to the presidency. Menem won a plurality in the first round of the presidential election but, fearing that he would lose in the required runoff election, he resigned; Kirchner became president as a result."[M 6]
Cristina Kirchner (2007-15)
- Member of B'Nai Brith[X 1]
"Cristina Elisabet Fernández de Kirchner (Spanish pronunciation: [kɾisˈtina elisaˈβet ferˈnandes ðe ˈkiɾʃneɾ]; born 19 February 1953), sometimes referred to by her initials CFK, is an Argentine lawyer and politician, who served as President of Argentina from 2007 to 2015.
Fernandez is the second woman to serve as President of Argentina, the first directly elected female president, and the first woman re-elected to the office. Ideologically a Peronist and social democrat, she was a member of the Justicialist Party, with her political approach being characterised as Kirchnerism.
Born in La Plata, Buenos Aires Province, she studied law at the University of La Plata, and moved to Patagonia with her husband Néstor Kirchner upon graduation. She was elected to the provincial legislature; her husband was elected mayor of Río Gallegos. She was elected national senator in 1995, and had a controversial tenure, while her husband was elected governor of Santa Cruz Province. In 1994, she was also elected to the constituent assembly that amended the Constitution of Argentina. She was the First Lady from 2003 to 2007 after Néstor Kirchner was elected president.
Néstor Kirchner did not run for reelection. Instead, Cristina Kirchner was the candidate for the Front for Victory party, becoming president in the 2007 presidential election. Her first term of office started with a conflict with the agricultural sector, and her proposed taxation system was rejected. After this she nationalized private pension funds, and fired the president of the Central Bank. The price of public services remained subsidised, the country lost its self-supply of energy, and she renationalized energy firm YPF as a result.
Her government implemented measures such as the application of universal allocation per child, the re-nationalization of pension funds, the Conectar Igualdad program, the increase in the budget for science and research, a new media law and the broadening of LGBT rights, including same-sex marriage and the Gender Identity Law. According to the World Bank, the middle class doubled in Argentina during her term. She also carried out policies in pursuit of human rights, such as the trials of military personnel involved in the Dirty War. There have been more than 500 people sentenced, and 1,000 convicted, in a process that was unprecedented in Latin America.
Several corruption scandals took place and she faced several demonstrations against her rule. She was charged for low price sales of dollar futures and was indicted for obstructing the investigation into the 1994 AMIA Bombing. In 2018, she was also indicted for corruption on charges alleging that her administration had accepted bribes in exchange for public works contracts.
Currently, she is a senator for Buenos Aires Province."[M 7]
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- World Historia Forum - Lunatics to the Americas
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- Carl Skottsberg - The wilds of Patagonia; a narrative of the Swedish expedition to Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego and the Falkland Islands in 1907-1909
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- Wiki - Maureen Dunlop
- Wiki - Walter Beveraggi Allende
- Wiki - Hovevei Zion
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- Los otros lugares contemplados para uun estado judío antes de la Creación de Israel en territorio palestino
- Wiki - Simcha Maximilian Südfeld "Max Nordau"
- Wiki - First Zionist Congress
- Israeled - Jewish Colonial Trust
- 1938 - Joseph Hefter - Room for the Jew
- Wiki - Adolf Eichmann
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